path: root/kernel/sysctl.c
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2016-05-25Merge branch 'perf-urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-1/+10
git:// Pull perf updates from Ingo Molnar: "Mostly tooling and PMU driver fixes, but also a number of late updates such as the reworking of the call-chain size limiting logic to make call-graph recording more robust, plus tooling side changes for the new 'backwards ring-buffer' extension to the perf ring-buffer" * 'perf-urgent-for-linus' of git:// (34 commits) perf record: Read from backward ring buffer perf record: Rename variable to make code clear perf record: Prevent reading invalid data in record__mmap_read perf evlist: Add API to pause/resume perf trace: Use the ptr->name beautifier as default for "filename" args perf trace: Use the fd->name beautifier as default for "fd" args perf report: Add srcline_from/to branch sort keys perf evsel: Record fd into perf_mmap perf evsel: Add overwrite attribute and check write_backward perf tools: Set buildid dir under symfs when --symfs is provided perf trace: Only auto set call-graph to "dwarf" when syscalls are being traced perf annotate: Sort list of recognised instructions perf annotate: Fix identification of ARM blt and bls instructions perf tools: Fix usage of max_stack sysctl perf callchain: Stop validating callchains by the max_stack sysctl perf trace: Fix exit_group() formatting perf top: Use machine->kptr_restrict_warned perf trace: Warn when trying to resolve kernel addresses with kptr_restrict=1 perf machine: Do not bail out if not managing to read ref reloc symbol perf/x86/intel/p4: Trival indentation fix, remove space ...
2016-05-19mm: /proc/sys/vm/stat_refresh to force vmstat updateHugh Dickins-0/+7
Provide /proc/sys/vm/stat_refresh to force an immediate update of per-cpu into global vmstats: useful to avoid a sleep(2) or whatever before checking counts when testing. Originally added to work around a bug which left counts stranded indefinitely on a cpu going idle (an inaccuracy magnified when small below-batch numbers represent "huge" amounts of memory), but I believe that bug is now fixed: nonetheless, this is still a useful knob. Its schedule_on_each_cpu() is probably too expensive just to fold into reading /proc/meminfo itself: give this mode 0600 to prevent abuse. Allow a write or a read to do the same: nothing to read, but "grep -h Shmem /proc/sys/vm/stat_refresh /proc/meminfo" is convenient. Oh, and since global_page_state() itself is careful to disguise any underflow as 0, hack in an "Invalid argument" and pr_warn() if a counter is negative after the refresh - this helped to fix a misaccounting of NR_ISOLATED_FILE in my migration code. But on recent kernels, I find that NR_ALLOC_BATCH and NR_PAGES_SCANNED often go negative some of the time. I have not yet worked out why, but have no evidence that it's actually harmful. Punt for the moment by just ignoring the anomaly on those. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Andres Lagar-Cavilla <> Cc: Yang Shi <> Cc: Ning Qu <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Andres Lagar-Cavilla <> Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2016-05-16perf core: Separate accounting of contexts and real addresses in a stack traceArnaldo Carvalho de Melo-0/+9
The perf_sample->ip_callchain->nr value includes all the entries in the ip_callchain->ip[] array, real addresses and PERF_CONTEXT_{KERNEL,USER,etc}, while what the user expects is that what is in the kernel.perf_event_max_stack sysctl or in the upcoming per event perf_event_attr.sample_max_stack knob be honoured in terms of IP addresses in the stack trace. So allocate a bunch of extra entries for contexts, and do the accounting via perf_callchain_entry_ctx struct members. A new sysctl, kernel.perf_event_max_contexts_per_stack is also introduced for investigating possible bugs in the callchain implementation by some arch. Cc: Adrian Hunter <> Cc: Alexander Shishkin <> Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <> Cc: Brendan Gregg <> Cc: David Ahern <> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <> Cc: He Kuang <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Cc: Milian Wolff <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Stephane Eranian <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Vince Weaver <> Cc: Wang Nan <> Cc: Zefan Li <> Link: Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <>
2016-05-16perf core: Generalize max_stack sysctl handlerArnaldo Carvalho de Melo-1/+1
So that it can be used for other stack related knobs, such as the upcoming one to tweak the max number of of contexts per stack sample. In all those cases we can only change the value if there are no perf sessions collecting stacks, so they need to grab that mutex, etc. Cc: David Ahern <> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Link: Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <>
2016-04-27perf core: Allow setting up max frame stack depth via sysctlArnaldo Carvalho de Melo-0/+12
The default remains 127, which is good for most cases, and not even hit most of the time, but then for some cases, as reported by Brendan, 1024+ deep frames are appearing on the radar for things like groovy, ruby. And in some workloads putting a _lower_ cap on this may make sense. One that is per event still needs to be put in place tho. The new file is: # cat /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_max_stack 127 Chaging it: # echo 256 > /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_max_stack # cat /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_max_stack 256 But as soon as there is some event using callchains we get: # echo 512 > /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_max_stack -bash: echo: write error: Device or resource busy # Because we only allocate the callchain percpu data structures when there is a user, which allows for changing the max easily, its just a matter of having no callchain users at that point. Reported-and-Tested-by: Brendan Gregg <> Reviewed-by: Frederic Weisbecker <> Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Acked-by: David Ahern <> Cc: Adrian Hunter <> Cc: Alexander Shishkin <> Cc: He Kuang <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Cc: Milian Wolff <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Stephane Eranian <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Vince Weaver <> Cc: Wang Nan <> Cc: Zefan Li <> Link: Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <>
2016-03-17mm: scale kswapd watermarks in proportion to memoryJohannes Weiner-0/+10
In machines with 140G of memory and enterprise flash storage, we have seen read and write bursts routinely exceed the kswapd watermarks and cause thundering herds in direct reclaim. Unfortunately, the only way to tune kswapd aggressiveness is through adjusting min_free_kbytes - the system's emergency reserves - which is entirely unrelated to the system's latency requirements. In order to get kswapd to maintain a 250M buffer of free memory, the emergency reserves need to be set to 1G. That is a lot of memory wasted for no good reason. On the other hand, it's reasonable to assume that allocation bursts and overall allocation concurrency scale with memory capacity, so it makes sense to make kswapd aggressiveness a function of that as well. Change the kswapd watermark scale factor from the currently fixed 25% of the tunable emergency reserve to a tunable 0.1% of memory. Beyond 1G of memory, this will produce bigger watermark steps than the current formula in default settings. Ensure that the new formula never chooses steps smaller than that, i.e. 25% of the emergency reserve. On a 140G machine, this raises the default watermark steps - the distance between min and low, and low and high - from 16M to 143M. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Acked-by: David Rientjes <> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2016-02-09sched/debug: Make schedstats a runtime tunable that is disabled by defaultMel Gorman-1/+12
schedstats is very useful during debugging and performance tuning but it incurs overhead to calculate the stats. As such, even though it can be disabled at build time, it is often enabled as the information is useful. This patch adds a kernel command-line and sysctl tunable to enable or disable schedstats on demand (when it's built in). It is disabled by default as someone who knows they need it can also learn to enable it when necessary. The benefits are dependent on how scheduler-intensive the workload is. If it is then the patch reduces the number of cycles spent calculating the stats with a small benefit from reducing the cache footprint of the scheduler. These measurements were taken from a 48-core 2-socket machine with Xeon(R) E5-2670 v3 cpus although they were also tested on a single socket machine 8-core machine with Intel i7-3770 processors. netperf-tcp 4.5.0-rc1 4.5.0-rc1 vanilla nostats-v3r1 Hmean 64 560.45 ( 0.00%) 575.98 ( 2.77%) Hmean 128 766.66 ( 0.00%) 795.79 ( 3.80%) Hmean 256 950.51 ( 0.00%) 981.50 ( 3.26%) Hmean 1024 1433.25 ( 0.00%) 1466.51 ( 2.32%) Hmean 2048 2810.54 ( 0.00%) 2879.75 ( 2.46%) Hmean 3312 4618.18 ( 0.00%) 4682.09 ( 1.38%) Hmean 4096 5306.42 ( 0.00%) 5346.39 ( 0.75%) Hmean 8192 10581.44 ( 0.00%) 10698.15 ( 1.10%) Hmean 16384 18857.70 ( 0.00%) 18937.61 ( 0.42%) Small gains here, UDP_STREAM showed nothing intresting and neither did the TCP_RR tests. The gains on the 8-core machine were very similar. tbench4 4.5.0-rc1 4.5.0-rc1 vanilla nostats-v3r1 Hmean mb/sec-1 500.85 ( 0.00%) 522.43 ( 4.31%) Hmean mb/sec-2 984.66 ( 0.00%) 1018.19 ( 3.41%) Hmean mb/sec-4 1827.91 ( 0.00%) 1847.78 ( 1.09%) Hmean mb/sec-8 3561.36 ( 0.00%) 3611.28 ( 1.40%) Hmean mb/sec-16 5824.52 ( 0.00%) 5929.03 ( 1.79%) Hmean mb/sec-32 10943.10 ( 0.00%) 10802.83 ( -1.28%) Hmean mb/sec-64 15950.81 ( 0.00%) 16211.31 ( 1.63%) Hmean mb/sec-128 15302.17 ( 0.00%) 15445.11 ( 0.93%) Hmean mb/sec-256 14866.18 ( 0.00%) 15088.73 ( 1.50%) Hmean mb/sec-512 15223.31 ( 0.00%) 15373.69 ( 0.99%) Hmean mb/sec-1024 14574.25 ( 0.00%) 14598.02 ( 0.16%) Hmean mb/sec-2048 13569.02 ( 0.00%) 13733.86 ( 1.21%) Hmean mb/sec-3072 12865.98 ( 0.00%) 13209.23 ( 2.67%) Small gains of 2-4% at low thread counts and otherwise flat. The gains on the 8-core machine were slightly different tbench4 on 8-core i7-3770 single socket machine Hmean mb/sec-1 442.59 ( 0.00%) 448.73 ( 1.39%) Hmean mb/sec-2 796.68 ( 0.00%) 794.39 ( -0.29%) Hmean mb/sec-4 1322.52 ( 0.00%) 1343.66 ( 1.60%) Hmean mb/sec-8 2611.65 ( 0.00%) 2694.86 ( 3.19%) Hmean mb/sec-16 2537.07 ( 0.00%) 2609.34 ( 2.85%) Hmean mb/sec-32 2506.02 ( 0.00%) 2578.18 ( 2.88%) Hmean mb/sec-64 2511.06 ( 0.00%) 2569.16 ( 2.31%) Hmean mb/sec-128 2313.38 ( 0.00%) 2395.50 ( 3.55%) Hmean mb/sec-256 2110.04 ( 0.00%) 2177.45 ( 3.19%) Hmean mb/sec-512 2072.51 ( 0.00%) 2053.97 ( -0.89%) In constract, this shows a relatively steady 2-3% gain at higher thread counts. Due to the nature of the patch and the type of workload, it's not a surprise that the result will depend on the CPU used. hackbench-pipes 4.5.0-rc1 4.5.0-rc1 vanilla nostats-v3r1 Amean 1 0.0637 ( 0.00%) 0.0660 ( -3.59%) Amean 4 0.1229 ( 0.00%) 0.1181 ( 3.84%) Amean 7 0.1921 ( 0.00%) 0.1911 ( 0.52%) Amean 12 0.3117 ( 0.00%) 0.2923 ( 6.23%) Amean 21 0.4050 ( 0.00%) 0.3899 ( 3.74%) Amean 30 0.4586 ( 0.00%) 0.4433 ( 3.33%) Amean 48 0.5910 ( 0.00%) 0.5694 ( 3.65%) Amean 79 0.8663 ( 0.00%) 0.8626 ( 0.43%) Amean 110 1.1543 ( 0.00%) 1.1517 ( 0.22%) Amean 141 1.4457 ( 0.00%) 1.4290 ( 1.16%) Amean 172 1.7090 ( 0.00%) 1.6924 ( 0.97%) Amean 192 1.9126 ( 0.00%) 1.9089 ( 0.19%) Some small gains and losses and while the variance data is not included, it's close to the noise. The UMA machine did not show anything particularly different pipetest 4.5.0-rc1 4.5.0-rc1 vanilla nostats-v2r2 Min Time 4.13 ( 0.00%) 3.99 ( 3.39%) 1st-qrtle Time 4.38 ( 0.00%) 4.27 ( 2.51%) 2nd-qrtle Time 4.46 ( 0.00%) 4.39 ( 1.57%) 3rd-qrtle Time 4.56 ( 0.00%) 4.51 ( 1.10%) Max-90% Time 4.67 ( 0.00%) 4.60 ( 1.50%) Max-93% Time 4.71 ( 0.00%) 4.65 ( 1.27%) Max-95% Time 4.74 ( 0.00%) 4.71 ( 0.63%) Max-99% Time 4.88 ( 0.00%) 4.79 ( 1.84%) Max Time 4.93 ( 0.00%) 4.83 ( 2.03%) Mean Time 4.48 ( 0.00%) 4.39 ( 1.91%) Best99%Mean Time 4.47 ( 0.00%) 4.39 ( 1.91%) Best95%Mean Time 4.46 ( 0.00%) 4.38 ( 1.93%) Best90%Mean Time 4.45 ( 0.00%) 4.36 ( 1.98%) Best50%Mean Time 4.36 ( 0.00%) 4.25 ( 2.49%) Best10%Mean Time 4.23 ( 0.00%) 4.10 ( 3.13%) Best5%Mean Time 4.19 ( 0.00%) 4.06 ( 3.20%) Best1%Mean Time 4.13 ( 0.00%) 4.00 ( 3.39%) Small improvement and similar gains were seen on the UMA machine. The gain is small but it stands to reason that doing less work in the scheduler is a good thing. The downside is that the lack of schedstats and tracepoints may be surprising to experts doing performance analysis until they find the existence of the schedstats= parameter or schedstats sysctl. It will be automatically activated for latencytop and sleep profiling to alleviate the problem. For tracepoints, there is a simple warning as it's not safe to activate schedstats in the context when it's known the tracepoint may be wanted but is unavailable. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Reviewed-by: Matt Fleming <> Reviewed-by: Srikar Dronamraju <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Mike Galbraith <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2016-01-22Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-0/+14
git:// Pull more vfs updates from Al Viro: "Embarrassing braino fix + pipe page accounting + fixing an eyesore in find_filesystem() (checking that s1 is equal to prefix of s2 of given length can be done in many ways, but "compare strlen(s1) with length and then do strncmp()" is not a good one...)" * 'for-linus' of git:// [regression] fix braino in fs/dlm/user.c pipe: limit the per-user amount of pages allocated in pipes find_filesystem(): simplify comparison
2016-01-20sysctl: enable strict writesKees Cook-1/+1
SYSCTL_WRITES_WARN was added in commit f4aacea2f5d1 ("sysctl: allow for strict write position handling"), and released in v3.16 in August of 2014. Since then I can find only 1 instance of non-zero offset writing[1], and it was fixed immediately in CRIU[2]. As such, it appears safe to flip this to the strict state now. [1]"when%20file%20position%20was%20not%200" [2] Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2016-01-19pipe: limit the per-user amount of pages allocated in pipesWilly Tarreau-0/+14
On no-so-small systems, it is possible for a single process to cause an OOM condition by filling large pipes with data that are never read. A typical process filling 4000 pipes with 1 MB of data will use 4 GB of memory. On small systems it may be tricky to set the pipe max size to prevent this from happening. This patch makes it possible to enforce a per-user soft limit above which new pipes will be limited to a single page, effectively limiting them to 4 kB each, as well as a hard limit above which no new pipes may be created for this user. This has the effect of protecting the system against memory abuse without hurting other users, and still allowing pipes to work correctly though with less data at once. The limit are controlled by two new sysctls : pipe-user-pages-soft, and pipe-user-pages-hard. Both may be disabled by setting them to zero. The default soft limit allows the default number of FDs per process (1024) to create pipes of the default size (64kB), thus reaching a limit of 64MB before starting to create only smaller pipes. With 256 processes limited to 1024 FDs each, this results in 1024*64kB + (256*1024 - 1024) * 4kB = 1084 MB of memory allocated for a user. The hard limit is disabled by default to avoid breaking existing applications that make intensive use of pipes (eg: for splicing). Reported-by: Reported-by: Tetsuo Handa <> Mitigates: CVE-2013-4312 (Linux 2.0+) Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Willy Tarreau <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2016-01-14mm: mmap: add new /proc tunable for mmap_base ASLRDaniel Cashman-0/+22
Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) provides a barrier to exploitation of user-space processes in the presence of security vulnerabilities by making it more difficult to find desired code/data which could help an attack. This is done by adding a random offset to the location of regions in the process address space, with a greater range of potential offset values corresponding to better protection/a larger search-space for brute force, but also to greater potential for fragmentation. The offset added to the mmap_base address, which provides the basis for the majority of the mappings for a process, is set once on process exec in arch_pick_mmap_layout() and is done via hard-coded per-arch values, which reflect, hopefully, the best compromise for all systems. The trade-off between increased entropy in the offset value generation and the corresponding increased variability in address space fragmentation is not absolute, however, and some platforms may tolerate higher amounts of entropy. This patch introduces both new Kconfig values and a sysctl interface which may be used to change the amount of entropy used for offset generation on a system. The direct motivation for this change was in response to the libstagefright vulnerabilities that affected Android, specifically to information provided by Google's project zero at: The attack presented therein, by Google's project zero, specifically targeted the limited randomness used to generate the offset added to the mmap_base address in order to craft a brute-force-based attack. Concretely, the attack was against the mediaserver process, which was limited to respawning every 5 seconds, on an arm device. The hard-coded 8 bits used resulted in an average expected success rate of defeating the mmap ASLR after just over 10 minutes (128 tries at 5 seconds a piece). With this patch, and an accompanying increase in the entropy value to 16 bits, the same attack would take an average expected time of over 45 hours (32768 tries), which makes it both less feasible and more likely to be noticed. The introduced Kconfig and sysctl options are limited by per-arch minimum and maximum values, the minimum of which was chosen to match the current hard-coded value and the maximum of which was chosen so as to give the greatest flexibility without generating an invalid mmap_base address, generally a 3-4 bits less than the number of bits in the user-space accessible virtual address space. When decided whether or not to change the default value, a system developer should consider that mmap_base address could be placed anywhere up to 2^(value) bits away from the non-randomized location, which would introduce variable-sized areas above and below the mmap_base address such that the maximum vm_area_struct size may be reduced, preventing very large allocations. This patch (of 4): ASLR only uses as few as 8 bits to generate the random offset for the mmap base address on 32 bit architectures. This value was chosen to prevent a poorly chosen value from dividing the address space in such a way as to prevent large allocations. This may not be an issue on all platforms. Allow the specification of a minimum number of bits so that platforms desiring greater ASLR protection may determine where to place the trade-off. Signed-off-by: Daniel Cashman <> Cc: Russell King <> Acked-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <> Cc: Don Zickus <> Cc: Eric W. Biederman <> Cc: Heinrich Schuchardt <> Cc: Josh Poimboeuf <> Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: Mark Salyzyn <> Cc: Jeff Vander Stoep <> Cc: Nick Kralevich <> Cc: Catalin Marinas <> Cc: Will Deacon <> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <> Cc: Hector Marco-Gisbert <> Cc: Borislav Petkov <> Cc: Ralf Baechle <> Cc: Heiko Carstens <> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2016-01-04kernel/*: switch to memdup_user_nul()Al Viro-51/+28
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2015-11-05kernel/watchdog.c: add sysctl knob hardlockup_panicDon Zickus-0/+11
The only way to enable a hardlockup to panic the machine is to set 'nmi_watchdog=panic' on the kernel command line. This makes it awkward for end users and folks who want to run automate tests (like myself). Mimic the softlockup_panic knob and create a /proc/sys/kernel/hardlockup_panic knob. Signed-off-by: Don Zickus <> Cc: Ulrich Obergfell <> Acked-by: Jiri Kosina <> Reviewed-by: Aaron Tomlin <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-11-05kernel/watchdog.c: perform all-CPU backtrace in case of hard lockupJiri Kosina-0/+9
In many cases of hardlockup reports, it's actually not possible to know why it triggered, because the CPU that got stuck is usually waiting on a resource (with IRQs disabled) in posession of some other CPU is holding. IOW, we are often looking at the stacktrace of the victim and not the actual offender. Introduce sysctl / cmdline parameter that makes it possible to have hardlockup detector perform all-CPU backtrace. Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <> Reviewed-by: Aaron Tomlin <> Cc: Ulrich Obergfell <> Acked-by: Don Zickus <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-10-12bpf: enable non-root eBPF programsAlexei Starovoitov-0/+13
In order to let unprivileged users load and execute eBPF programs teach verifier to prevent pointer leaks. Verifier will prevent - any arithmetic on pointers (except R10+Imm which is used to compute stack addresses) - comparison of pointers (except if (map_value_ptr == 0) ... ) - passing pointers to helper functions - indirectly passing pointers in stack to helper functions - returning pointer from bpf program - storing pointers into ctx or maps Spill/fill of pointers into stack is allowed, but mangling of pointers stored in the stack or reading them byte by byte is not. Within bpf programs the pointers do exist, since programs need to be able to access maps, pass skb pointer to LD_ABS insns, etc but programs cannot pass such pointer values to the outside or obfuscate them. Only allow BPF_PROG_TYPE_SOCKET_FILTER unprivileged programs, so that socket filters (tcpdump), af_packet (quic acceleration) and future kcm can use it. tracing and tc cls/act program types still require root permissions, since tracing actually needs to be able to see all kernel pointers and tc is for root only. For example, the following unprivileged socket filter program is allowed: int bpf_prog1(struct __sk_buff *skb) { u32 index = load_byte(skb, ETH_HLEN + offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)); u64 *value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&my_map, &index); if (value) *value += skb->len; return 0; } but the following program is not: int bpf_prog1(struct __sk_buff *skb) { u32 index = load_byte(skb, ETH_HLEN + offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)); u64 *value = bpf_map_lookup_elem(&my_map, &index); if (value) *value += (u64) skb; return 0; } since it would leak the kernel address into the map. Unprivileged socket filter bpf programs have access to the following helper functions: - map lookup/update/delete (but they cannot store kernel pointers into them) - get_random (it's already exposed to unprivileged user space) - get_smp_processor_id - tail_call into another socket filter program - ktime_get_ns The feature is controlled by sysctl kernel.unprivileged_bpf_disabled. This toggle defaults to off (0), but can be set true (1). Once true, bpf programs and maps cannot be accessed from unprivileged process, and the toggle cannot be set back to false. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-09-10sysctl: fix int -> unsigned long assignments in INT_MIN caseIlya Dryomov-5/+5
The following if (val < 0) *lvalp = (unsigned long)-val; is incorrect because the compiler is free to assume -val to be positive and use a sign-extend instruction for extending the bit pattern. This is a problem if val == INT_MIN: # echo -2147483648 >/proc/sys/dev/scsi/logging_level # cat /proc/sys/dev/scsi/logging_level -18446744071562067968 Cast to unsigned long before negation - that way we first sign-extend and then negate an unsigned, which is well defined. With this: # cat /proc/sys/dev/scsi/logging_level -2147483648 Signed-off-by: Ilya Dryomov <> Cc: Mikulas Patocka <> Cc: Robert Xiao <> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <> Cc: Kees Cook <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-09-10kexec: split kexec_load syscall from kexec core codeDave Young-1/+1
There are two kexec load syscalls, kexec_load another and kexec_file_load. kexec_file_load has been splited as kernel/kexec_file.c. In this patch I split kexec_load syscall code to kernel/kexec.c. And add a new kconfig option KEXEC_CORE, so we can disable kexec_load and use kexec_file_load only, or vice verse. The original requirement is from Ted Ts'o, he want kexec kernel signature being checked with CONFIG_KEXEC_VERIFY_SIG enabled. But kexec-tools use kexec_load syscall can bypass the checking. Vivek Goyal proposed to create a common kconfig option so user can compile in only one syscall for loading kexec kernel. KEXEC/KEXEC_FILE selects KEXEC_CORE so that old config files still work. Because there's general code need CONFIG_KEXEC_CORE, so I updated all the architecture Kconfig with a new option KEXEC_CORE, and let KEXEC selects KEXEC_CORE in arch Kconfig. Also updated general kernel code with to kexec_load syscall. [ coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Dave Young <> Cc: Eric W. Biederman <> Cc: Vivek Goyal <> Cc: Petr Tesarik <> Cc: Theodore Ts'o <> Cc: Josh Boyer <> Cc: David Howells <> Cc: Geert Uytterhoeven <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-07-03Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-7/+1
git:// Pull user namespace updates from Eric Biederman: "Long ago and far away when user namespaces where young it was realized that allowing fresh mounts of proc and sysfs with only user namespace permissions could violate the basic rule that only root gets to decide if proc or sysfs should be mounted at all. Some hacks were put in place to reduce the worst of the damage could be done, and the common sense rule was adopted that fresh mounts of proc and sysfs should allow no more than bind mounts of proc and sysfs. Unfortunately that rule has not been fully enforced. There are two kinds of gaps in that enforcement. Only filesystems mounted on empty directories of proc and sysfs should be ignored but the test for empty directories was insufficient. So in my tree directories on proc, sysctl and sysfs that will always be empty are created specially. Every other technique is imperfect as an ordinary directory can have entries added even after a readdir returns and shows that the directory is empty. Special creation of directories for mount points makes the code in the kernel a smidge clearer about it's purpose. I asked container developers from the various container projects to help test this and no holes were found in the set of mount points on proc and sysfs that are created specially. This set of changes also starts enforcing the mount flags of fresh mounts of proc and sysfs are consistent with the existing mount of proc and sysfs. I expected this to be the boring part of the work but unfortunately unprivileged userspace winds up mounting fresh copies of proc and sysfs with noexec and nosuid clear when root set those flags on the previous mount of proc and sysfs. So for now only the atime, read-only and nodev attributes which userspace happens to keep consistent are enforced. Dealing with the noexec and nosuid attributes remains for another time. This set of changes also addresses an issue with how open file descriptors from /proc/<pid>/ns/* are displayed. Recently readlink of /proc/<pid>/fd has been triggering a WARN_ON that has not been meaningful since it was added (as all of the code in the kernel was converted) and is not now actively wrong. There is also a short list of issues that have not been fixed yet that I will mention briefly. It is possible to rename a directory from below to above a bind mount. At which point any directory pointers below the renamed directory can be walked up to the root directory of the filesystem. With user namespaces enabled a bind mount of the bind mount can be created allowing the user to pick a directory whose children they can rename to outside of the bind mount. This is challenging to fix and doubly so because all obvious solutions must touch code that is in the performance part of pathname resolution. As mentioned above there is also a question of how to ensure that developers by accident or with purpose do not introduce exectuable files on sysfs and proc and in doing so introduce security regressions in the current userspace that will not be immediately obvious and as such are likely to require breaking userspace in painful ways once they are recognized" * 'for-linus' of git:// vfs: Remove incorrect debugging WARN in prepend_path mnt: Update fs_fully_visible to test for permanently empty directories sysfs: Create mountpoints with sysfs_create_mount_point sysfs: Add support for permanently empty directories to serve as mount points. kernfs: Add support for always empty directories. proc: Allow creating permanently empty directories that serve as mount points sysctl: Allow creating permanently empty directories that serve as mountpoints. fs: Add helper functions for permanently empty directories. vfs: Ignore unlocked mounts in fs_fully_visible mnt: Modify fs_fully_visible to deal with locked ro nodev and atime mnt: Refactor the logic for mounting sysfs and proc in a user namespace
2015-07-01sysctl: Allow creating permanently empty directories that serve as mountpoints.Eric W. Biederman-7/+1
Add a magic sysctl table sysctl_mount_point that when used to create a directory forces that directory to be permanently empty. Update the code to use make_empty_dir_inode when accessing permanently empty directories. Update the code to not allow adding to permanently empty directories. Update /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc to be a permanently empty directory. Cc: Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <>
2015-06-24watchdog: add watchdog_cpumask sysctl to assist nohzChris Metcalf-0/+7
Change the default behavior of watchdog so it only runs on the housekeeping cores when nohz_full is enabled at build and boot time. Allow modifying the set of cores the watchdog is currently running on with a new kernel.watchdog_cpumask sysctl. In the current system, the watchdog subsystem runs a periodic timer that schedules the watchdog kthread to run. However, nohz_full cores are designed to allow userspace application code running on those cores to have 100% access to the CPU. So the watchdog system prevents the nohz_full application code from being able to run the way it wants to, thus the motivation to suppress the watchdog on nohz_full cores, which this patchset provides by default. However, if we disable the watchdog globally, then the housekeeping cores can't benefit from the watchdog functionality. So we allow disabling it only on some cores. See Documentation/lockup-watchdogs.txt for more information. [ fix a watchdog crash in some configurations] Signed-off-by: Chris Metcalf <> Acked-by: Don Zickus <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Ulrich Obergfell <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <> Signed-off-by: John Hubbard <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-06-19timer: Reduce timer migration overhead if disabledThomas Gleixner-9/+9
Eric reported that the timer_migration sysctl is not really nice performance wise as it needs to check at every timer insertion whether the feature is enabled or not. Further the check does not live in the timer code, so we have an extra function call which checks an extra cache line to figure out that it is disabled. We can do better and store that information in the per cpu (hr)timer bases. I pondered to use a static key, but that's a nightmare to update from the nohz code and the timer base cache line is hot anyway when we select a timer base. The old logic enabled the timer migration unconditionally if CONFIG_NO_HZ was set even if nohz was disabled on the kernel command line. With this modification, we start off with migration disabled. The user visible sysctl is still set to enabled. If the kernel switches to NOHZ migration is enabled, if the user did not disable it via the sysctl prior to the switch. If nohz=off is on the kernel command line, migration stays disabled no matter what. Before: 47.76% hog [.] main 14.84% [kernel] [k] _raw_spin_lock_irqsave 9.55% [kernel] [k] _raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore 6.71% [kernel] [k] mod_timer 6.24% [kernel] [k] lock_timer_base.isra.38 3.76% [kernel] [k] detach_if_pending 3.71% [kernel] [k] del_timer 2.50% [kernel] [k] internal_add_timer 1.51% [kernel] [k] get_nohz_timer_target 1.28% [kernel] [k] __internal_add_timer 0.78% [kernel] [k] timerfn 0.48% [kernel] [k] wake_up_nohz_cpu After: 48.10% hog [.] main 15.25% [kernel] [k] _raw_spin_lock_irqsave 9.76% [kernel] [k] _raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore 6.50% [kernel] [k] mod_timer 6.44% [kernel] [k] lock_timer_base.isra.38 3.87% [kernel] [k] detach_if_pending 3.80% [kernel] [k] del_timer 2.67% [kernel] [k] internal_add_timer 1.33% [kernel] [k] __internal_add_timer 0.73% [kernel] [k] timerfn 0.54% [kernel] [k] wake_up_nohz_cpu Reported-by: Eric Dumazet <> Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Paul McKenney <> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <> Cc: Viresh Kumar <> Cc: John Stultz <> Cc: Joonwoo Park <> Cc: Wenbo Wang <> Link: Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <>
2015-04-17kernel/sysctl.c: detect overflows when converting to intHeinrich Schuchardt-1/+9
When converting unsigned long to int overflows may occur. These currently are not detected when writing to the sysctl file system. E.g. on a system where int has 32 bits and long has 64 bits echo 0x800001234 > /proc/sys/kernel/threads-max has the same effect as echo 0x1234 > /proc/sys/kernel/threads-max The patch adds the missing check in do_proc_dointvec_conv. With the patch an overflow will result in an error EINVAL when writing to the the sysctl file system. Signed-off-by: Heinrich Schuchardt <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-04-17kernel/sysctl.c: threads-max observe limitsHeinrich Schuchardt-4/+2
Users can change the maximum number of threads by writing to /proc/sys/kernel/threads-max. With the patch the value entered is checked against the same limits that apply when fork_init is called. Signed-off-by: Heinrich Schuchardt <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Guenter Roeck <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-04-15mm: allow compaction of unevictable pagesEric B Munson-0/+9
Currently, pages which are marked as unevictable are protected from compaction, but not from other types of migration. The POSIX real time extension explicitly states that mlock() will prevent a major page fault, but the spirit of this is that mlock() should give a process the ability to control sources of latency, including minor page faults. However, the mlock manpage only explicitly says that a locked page will not be written to swap and this can cause some confusion. The compaction code today does not give a developer who wants to avoid swap but wants to have large contiguous areas available any method to achieve this state. This patch introduces a sysctl for controlling compaction behavior with respect to the unevictable lru. Users who demand no page faults after a page is present can set compact_unevictable_allowed to 0 and users who need the large contiguous areas can enable compaction on locked memory by leaving the default value of 1. To illustrate this problem I wrote a quick test program that mmaps a large number of 1MB files filled with random data. These maps are created locked and read only. Then every other mmap is unmapped and I attempt to allocate huge pages to the static huge page pool. When the compact_unevictable_allowed sysctl is 0, I cannot allocate hugepages after fragmenting memory. When the value is set to 1, allocations succeed. Signed-off-by: Eric B Munson <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <> Acked-by: David Rientjes <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Vlastimil Babka <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Christoph Lameter <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-04-14Merge branch 'akpm' (patches from Andrew)Linus Torvalds-11/+24
Merge first patchbomb from Andrew Morton: - arch/sh updates - ocfs2 updates - kernel/watchdog feature - about half of mm/ * emailed patches from Andrew Morton <>: (122 commits) Documentation: update arch list in the 'memtest' entry Kconfig: memtest: update number of test patterns up to 17 arm: add support for memtest arm64: add support for memtest memtest: use phys_addr_t for physical addresses mm: move memtest under mm mm, hugetlb: abort __get_user_pages if current has been oom killed mm, mempool: do not allow atomic resizing memcg: print cgroup information when system panics due to panic_on_oom mm: numa: remove migrate_ratelimited mm: fold arch_randomize_brk into ARCH_HAS_ELF_RANDOMIZE mm: split ET_DYN ASLR from mmap ASLR s390: redefine randomize_et_dyn for ELF_ET_DYN_BASE mm: expose arch_mmap_rnd when available s390: standardize mmap_rnd() usage powerpc: standardize mmap_rnd() usage mips: extract logic for mmap_rnd() arm64: standardize mmap_rnd() usage x86: standardize mmap_rnd() usage arm: factor out mmap ASLR into mmap_rnd ...
2015-04-14watchdog: enable the new user interface of the watchdog mechanismUlrich Obergfell-11/+24
With the current user interface of the watchdog mechanism it is only possible to disable or enable both lockup detectors at the same time. This series introduces new kernel parameters and changes the semantics of some existing kernel parameters, so that the hard lockup detector and the soft lockup detector can be disabled or enabled individually. With this series applied, the user interface is as follows. - parameters in /proc/sys/kernel . soft_watchdog This is a new parameter to control and examine the run state of the soft lockup detector. . nmi_watchdog The semantics of this parameter have changed. It can now be used to control and examine the run state of the hard lockup detector. . watchdog This parameter is still available to control the run state of both lockup detectors at the same time. If this parameter is examined, it shows the logical OR of soft_watchdog and nmi_watchdog. . watchdog_thresh The semantics of this parameter are not affected by the patch. - kernel command line parameters . nosoftlockup The semantics of this parameter have changed. It can now be used to disable the soft lockup detector at boot time. . nmi_watchdog=0 or nmi_watchdog=1 Disable or enable the hard lockup detector at boot time. The patch introduces '=1' as a new option. . nowatchdog The semantics of this parameter are not affected by the patch. It is still available to disable both lockup detectors at boot time. Also, remove the proc_dowatchdog() function which is no longer needed. [ wrote changelog] [ update documentation for kernel params and sysctl] Signed-off-by: Ulrich Obergfell <> Signed-off-by: Don Zickus <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2015-04-14Merge branch 'for-linus-1' of ↵Linus Torvalds-0/+1
git:// Pull vfs update from Al Viro: "Part one: - struct filename-related cleanups - saner iov_iter_init() replacements (and switching the syscalls to use of those) - ntfs switch to ->write_iter() (Anton) - aio cleanups and splitting iocb into common and async parts (Christoph) - assorted fixes (me, bfields, Andrew Elble) There's a lot more, including the completion of switchover to ->{read,write}_iter(), d_inode/d_backing_inode annotations, f_flags race fixes, etc, but that goes after #for-davem merge. David has pulled it, and once it's in I'll send the next vfs pull request" * 'for-linus-1' of git:// (35 commits) sg_start_req(): use import_iovec() sg_start_req(): make sure that there's not too many elements in iovec blk_rq_map_user(): use import_single_range() sg_io(): use import_iovec() process_vm_access: switch to {compat_,}import_iovec() switch keyctl_instantiate_key_common() to iov_iter switch {compat_,}do_readv_writev() to {compat_,}import_iovec() aio_setup_vectored_rw(): switch to {compat_,}import_iovec() vmsplice_to_user(): switch to import_iovec() kill aio_setup_single_vector() aio: simplify arguments of aio_setup_..._rw() aio: lift iov_iter_init() into aio_setup_..._rw() lift iov_iter into {compat_,}do_readv_writev() NFS: fix BUG() crash in notify_change() with patch to chown_common() dcache: return -ESTALE not -EBUSY on distributed fs race NTFS: Version 2.1.32 - Update file write from aio_write to write_iter. VFS: Add iov_iter_fault_in_multipages_readable() drop bogus check in file_open_root() switch security_inode_getattr() to struct path * constify tomoyo_realpath_from_path() ...
2015-03-25fs: move struct kiocb to fs.hChristoph Hellwig-0/+1
struct kiocb now is a generic I/O container, so move it to fs.h. Also do a #include diet for aio.h while we're at it. Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2015-03-17fs: add dirtytime_expire_seconds sysctlTheodore Ts'o-0/+8
Add a tuning knob so we can adjust the dirtytime expiration timeout, which is very useful for testing lazytime. Signed-off-by: Theodore Ts'o <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <>
2015-02-10mm, hugetlb: remove unnecessary lower bound on sysctl handlers"?Andrey Ryabinin-3/+0
Commit ed4d4902ebdd ("mm, hugetlb: remove hugetlb_zero and hugetlb_infinity") replaced 'unsigned long hugetlb_zero' with 'int zero' leading to out-of-bounds access in proc_doulongvec_minmax(). Use '.extra1 = NULL' instead of '.extra1 = &zero'. Passing NULL is equivalent to passing minimal value, which is 0 for unsigned types. Fixes: ed4d4902ebdd ("mm, hugetlb: remove hugetlb_zero and hugetlb_infinity") Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <> Reported-by: Dmitry Vyukov <> Suggested-by: Manfred Spraul <> Acked-by: David Rientjes <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-12-16Merge tag 'trace-3.19-2' of ↵Linus Torvalds-0/+7
git:// Pull tracing updates from Steven Rostedt: "As the merge window is still open, and this code was not as complex as I thought it might be. I'm pushing this in now. This will allow Thomas to debug his irq work for 3.20. This adds two new features: 1) Allow traceopoints to be enabled right after mm_init(). By passing in the trace_event= kernel command line parameter, tracepoints can be enabled at boot up. For debugging things like the initialization of interrupts, it is needed to have tracepoints enabled very early. People have asked about this before and this has been on my todo list. As it can be helpful for Thomas to debug his upcoming 3.20 IRQ work, I'm pushing this now. This way he can add tracepoints into the IRQ set up and have users enable them when things go wrong. 2) Have the tracepoints printed via printk() (the console) when they are triggered. If the irq code locks up or reboots the box, having the tracepoint output go into the kernel ring buffer is useless for debugging. But being able to add the tp_printk kernel command line option along with the trace_event= option will have these tracepoints printed as they occur, and that can be really useful for debugging early lock up or reboot problems. This code is not that intrusive and it passed all my tests. Thomas tried them out too and it works for his needs. Link:" * tag 'trace-3.19-2' of git:// tracing: Add tp_printk cmdline to have tracepoints go to printk() tracing: Move enabling tracepoints to just after rcu_init()
2014-12-15tracing: Add tp_printk cmdline to have tracepoints go to printk()Steven Rostedt (Red Hat)-0/+7
Add the kernel command line tp_printk option that will have tracepoints that are active sent to printk() as well as to the trace buffer. Passing "tp_printk" will activate this. To turn it off, the sysctl /proc/sys/kernel/tracepoint_printk can have '0' echoed into it. Note, this only works if the cmdline option is used. Echoing 1 into the sysctl file without the cmdline option will have no affect. Note, this is a dangerous option. Having high frequency tracepoints send their data to printk() can possibly cause a live lock. This is another reason why this is only active if the command line option is used. Link: Suggested-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Tested-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Acked-by: Thomas Gleixner <> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt <>
2014-12-10kernel: add panic_on_warnPrarit Bhargava-0/+9
There have been several times where I have had to rebuild a kernel to cause a panic when hitting a WARN() in the code in order to get a crash dump from a system. Sometimes this is easy to do, other times (such as in the case of a remote admin) it is not trivial to send new images to the user. A much easier method would be a switch to change the WARN() over to a panic. This makes debugging easier in that I can now test the actual image the WARN() was seen on and I do not have to engage in remote debugging. This patch adds a panic_on_warn kernel parameter and /proc/sys/kernel/panic_on_warn calls panic() in the warn_slowpath_common() path. The function will still print out the location of the warning. An example of the panic_on_warn output: The first line below is from the WARN_ON() to output the WARN_ON()'s location. After that the panic() output is displayed. WARNING: CPU: 30 PID: 11698 at /home/prarit/dummy_module/dummy-module.c:25 init_dummy+0x1f/0x30 [dummy_module]() Kernel panic - not syncing: panic_on_warn set ... CPU: 30 PID: 11698 Comm: insmod Tainted: G W OE 3.17.0+ #57 Hardware name: Intel Corporation S2600CP/S2600CP, BIOS RMLSDP.86I.00.29.D696.1311111329 11/11/2013 0000000000000000 000000008e3f87df ffff88080f093c38 ffffffff81665190 0000000000000000 ffffffff818aea3d ffff88080f093cb8 ffffffff8165e2ec ffffffff00000008 ffff88080f093cc8 ffff88080f093c68 000000008e3f87df Call Trace: [<ffffffff81665190>] dump_stack+0x46/0x58 [<ffffffff8165e2ec>] panic+0xd0/0x204 [<ffffffffa038e05f>] ? init_dummy+0x1f/0x30 [dummy_module] [<ffffffff81076b90>] warn_slowpath_common+0xd0/0xd0 [<ffffffffa038e040>] ? dummy_greetings+0x40/0x40 [dummy_module] [<ffffffff81076c8a>] warn_slowpath_null+0x1a/0x20 [<ffffffffa038e05f>] init_dummy+0x1f/0x30 [dummy_module] [<ffffffff81002144>] do_one_initcall+0xd4/0x210 [<ffffffff811b52c2>] ? __vunmap+0xc2/0x110 [<ffffffff810f8889>] load_module+0x16a9/0x1b30 [<ffffffff810f3d30>] ? store_uevent+0x70/0x70 [<ffffffff810f49b9>] ? copy_module_from_fd.isra.44+0x129/0x180 [<ffffffff810f8ec6>] SyS_finit_module+0xa6/0xd0 [<ffffffff8166cf29>] system_call_fastpath+0x12/0x17 Successfully tested by me. hpa said: There is another very valid use for this: many operators would rather a machine shuts down than being potentially compromised either functionally or security-wise. Signed-off-by: Prarit Bhargava <> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <> Cc: Rusty Russell <> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <> Cc: Andi Kleen <> Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <> Acked-by: Yasuaki Ishimatsu <> Cc: Fabian Frederick <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-10-28sched/fair: Fix division by zero sysctl_numa_balancing_scan_sizeKirill Tkhai-1/+2
File /proc/sys/kernel/numa_balancing_scan_size_mb allows writing of zero. This bash command reproduces problem: $ while :; do echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/numa_balancing_scan_size_mb; \ echo 256 > /proc/sys/kernel/numa_balancing_scan_size_mb; done divide error: 0000 [#1] SMP Modules linked in: CPU: 0 PID: 24112 Comm: bash Not tainted 3.17.0+ #8 Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS Bochs 01/01/2011 task: ffff88013c852600 ti: ffff880037a68000 task.ti: ffff880037a68000 RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff81074191>] [<ffffffff81074191>] task_scan_min+0x21/0x50 RSP: 0000:ffff880037a6bce0 EFLAGS: 00010246 RAX: 0000000000000a00 RBX: 00000000000003e8 RCX: 0000000000000000 RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: 0000000000000000 RDI: ffff88013c852600 RBP: ffff880037a6bcf0 R08: 0000000000000001 R09: 0000000000015c90 R10: ffff880239bf6c00 R11: 0000000000000016 R12: 0000000000003fff R13: ffff88013c852600 R14: ffffea0008d1b000 R15: 0000000000000003 FS: 00007f12bb048700(0000) GS:ffff88007da00000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b CR2: 0000000001505678 CR3: 0000000234770000 CR4: 00000000000006f0 Stack: ffff88013c852600 0000000000003fff ffff880037a6bd18 ffffffff810741d1 ffff88013c852600 0000000000003fff 000000000002bfff ffff880037a6bda8 ffffffff81077ef7 ffffea0008a56d40 0000000000000001 0000000000000001 Call Trace: [<ffffffff810741d1>] task_scan_max+0x11/0x40 [<ffffffff81077ef7>] task_numa_fault+0x1f7/0xae0 [<ffffffff8115a896>] ? migrate_misplaced_page+0x276/0x300 [<ffffffff81134a4d>] handle_mm_fault+0x62d/0xba0 [<ffffffff8103e2f1>] __do_page_fault+0x191/0x510 [<ffffffff81030122>] ? native_smp_send_reschedule+0x42/0x60 [<ffffffff8106dc00>] ? check_preempt_curr+0x80/0xa0 [<ffffffff8107092c>] ? wake_up_new_task+0x11c/0x1a0 [<ffffffff8104887d>] ? do_fork+0x14d/0x340 [<ffffffff811799bb>] ? get_unused_fd_flags+0x2b/0x30 [<ffffffff811799df>] ? __fd_install+0x1f/0x60 [<ffffffff8103e67c>] do_page_fault+0xc/0x10 [<ffffffff8150d322>] page_fault+0x22/0x30 RIP [<ffffffff81074191>] task_scan_min+0x21/0x50 RSP <ffff880037a6bce0> ---[ end trace 9a826d16936c04de ]--- Also fix race in task_scan_min (it depends on compiler behaviour). Signed-off-by: Kirill Tkhai <> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <> Cc: Aaron Tomlin <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Dario Faggioli <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Cc: Kees Cook <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Paul E. McKenney <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2014-10-13Merge branch 'core-rcu-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-9/+0
git:// Pull RCU updates from Ingo Molnar: "The main changes in this cycle were: - changes related to No-CBs CPUs and NO_HZ_FULL - RCU-tasks implementation - torture-test updates - miscellaneous fixes - locktorture updates - RCU documentation updates" * 'core-rcu-for-linus' of git:// (81 commits) workqueue: Use cond_resched_rcu_qs macro workqueue: Add quiescent state between work items locktorture: Cleanup header usage locktorture: Cannot hold read and write lock locktorture: Fix __acquire annotation for spinlock irq locktorture: Support rwlocks rcu: Eliminate deadlock between CPU hotplug and expedited grace periods locktorture: Document boot/module parameters rcutorture: Rename rcutorture_runnable parameter locktorture: Add test scenario for rwsem_lock locktorture: Add test scenario for mutex_lock locktorture: Make torture scripting account for new _runnable name locktorture: Introduce torture context locktorture: Support rwsems locktorture: Add infrastructure for torturing read locks torture: Address race in module cleanup locktorture: Make statistics generic locktorture: Teach about lock debugging locktorture: Support mutexes locktorture: Add documentation ...
2014-10-09mm: remove noisy remainder of the scan_unevictable interfaceJohannes Weiner-7/+0
The deprecation warnings for the scan_unevictable interface triggers by scripts doing `sysctl -a | grep something else'. This is annoying and not helpful. The interface has been defunct since 264e56d8247e ("mm: disable user interface to manually rescue unevictable pages"), which was in 2011, and there haven't been any reports of usecases for it, only reports that the deprecation warnings are annying. It's unlikely that anybody is using this interface specifically at this point, so remove it. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-09-16rcutorture: Rename rcutorture_runnable parameterPaul E. McKenney-9/+0
This commit changes rcutorture_runnable to torture_runnable, which is consistent with the names of the other parameters and is a bit shorter as well. Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <>
2014-08-06mm, hugetlb: remove hugetlb_zero and hugetlb_infinityDavid Rientjes-6/+3
They are unnecessary: "zero" can be used in place of "hugetlb_zero" and passing extra2 == NULL is equivalent to infinity. Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <> Reviewed-by: Naoya Horiguchi <> Reviewed-by: Luiz Capitulino <> Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-23kernel/watchdog.c: print traces for all cpus on lockup detectionAaron Tomlin-0/+11
A 'softlockup' is defined as a bug that causes the kernel to loop in kernel mode for more than a predefined period to time, without giving other tasks a chance to run. Currently, upon detection of this condition by the per-cpu watchdog task, debug information (including a stack trace) is sent to the system log. On some occasions, we have observed that the "victim" rather than the actual "culprit" (i.e. the owner/holder of the contended resource) is reported to the user. Often this information has proven to be insufficient to assist debugging efforts. To avoid loss of useful debug information, for architectures which support NMI, this patch makes it possible to improve soft lockup reporting. This is accomplished by issuing an NMI to each cpu to obtain a stack trace. If NMI is not supported we just revert back to the old method. A sysctl and boot-time parameter is available to toggle this feature. [ add CONFIG_SMP in certain areas] [ additional CONFIG_SMP=n optimisations] [ fix warning] Signed-off-by: Aaron Tomlin <> Signed-off-by: Don Zickus <> Cc: David S. Miller <> Cc: Mateusz Guzik <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Signed-off-by: Jan Moskyto Matejka <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-23mm, pcp: allow restoring percpu_pagelist_fraction defaultDavid Rientjes-2/+1
Oleg reports a division by zero error on zero-length write() to the percpu_pagelist_fraction sysctl: divide error: 0000 [#1] SMP DEBUG_PAGEALLOC CPU: 1 PID: 9142 Comm: badarea_io Not tainted 3.15.0-rc2-vm-nfs+ #19 Hardware name: Bochs Bochs, BIOS Bochs 01/01/2011 task: ffff8800d5aeb6e0 ti: ffff8800d87a2000 task.ti: ffff8800d87a2000 RIP: 0010: percpu_pagelist_fraction_sysctl_handler+0x84/0x120 RSP: 0018:ffff8800d87a3e78 EFLAGS: 00010246 RAX: 0000000000000f89 RBX: ffff88011f7fd000 RCX: 0000000000000000 RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: 0000000000000001 RDI: 0000000000000010 RBP: ffff8800d87a3e98 R08: ffffffff81d002c8 R09: ffff8800d87a3f50 R10: 000000000000000b R11: 0000000000000246 R12: 0000000000000060 R13: ffffffff81c3c3e0 R14: ffffffff81cfddf8 R15: ffff8801193b0800 FS: 00007f614f1e9740(0000) GS:ffff88011f440000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b CR2: 00007f614f1fa000 CR3: 00000000d9291000 CR4: 00000000000006e0 Call Trace: proc_sys_call_handler+0xb3/0xc0 proc_sys_write+0x14/0x20 vfs_write+0xba/0x1e0 SyS_write+0x46/0xb0 tracesys+0xe1/0xe6 However, if the percpu_pagelist_fraction sysctl is set by the user, it is also impossible to restore it to the kernel default since the user cannot write 0 to the sysctl. This patch allows the user to write 0 to restore the default behavior. It still requires a fraction equal to or larger than 8, however, as stated by the documentation for sanity. If a value in the range [1, 7] is written, the sysctl will return EINVAL. This successfully solves the divide by zero issue at the same time. Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <> Reported-by: Oleg Drokin <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-19Merge git:// Torvalds-4/+0
Pull sparc fixes from David Miller: "Sparc sparse fixes from Sam Ravnborg" * git:// (67 commits) sparc64: fix sparse warnings in int_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in ftrace.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in kprobes.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in kgdb_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in compat_audit.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in init_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in aes_glue.c sparc: fix sparse warnings in smp_32.c + smp_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in perf_event.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in kprobes.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in tsb.c sparc64: clean up compat_sigset_t.seta handling sparc64: fix sparse "Should it be static?" warnings in signal32.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in sys_sparc32.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in pci.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in smp_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in prom_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in btext.c sparc64: fix sparse warnings in sys_sparc_64.c + unaligned_64.c sparc64: fix sparse warning in process_64.c ... Conflicts: arch/sparc/include/asm/pgtable_64.h
2014-06-12Merge git:// Torvalds-2/+2
Pull networking updates from David Miller: 1) Seccomp BPF filters can now be JIT'd, from Alexei Starovoitov. 2) Multiqueue support in xen-netback and xen-netfront, from Andrew J Benniston. 3) Allow tweaking of aggregation settings in cdc_ncm driver, from Bjørn Mork. 4) BPF now has a "random" opcode, from Chema Gonzalez. 5) Add more BPF documentation and improve test framework, from Daniel Borkmann. 6) Support TCP fastopen over ipv6, from Daniel Lee. 7) Add software TSO helper functions and use them to support software TSO in mvneta and mv643xx_eth drivers. From Ezequiel Garcia. 8) Support software TSO in fec driver too, from Nimrod Andy. 9) Add Broadcom SYSTEMPORT driver, from Florian Fainelli. 10) Handle broadcasts more gracefully over macvlan when there are large numbers of interfaces configured, from Herbert Xu. 11) Allow more control over fwmark used for non-socket based responses, from Lorenzo Colitti. 12) Do TCP congestion window limiting based upon measurements, from Neal Cardwell. 13) Support busy polling in SCTP, from Neal Horman. 14) Allow RSS key to be configured via ethtool, from Venkata Duvvuru. 15) Bridge promisc mode handling improvements from Vlad Yasevich. 16) Don't use inetpeer entries to implement ID generation any more, it performs poorly, from Eric Dumazet. * git:// (1522 commits) rtnetlink: fix userspace API breakage for iproute2 < v3.9.0 tcp: fixing TLP's FIN recovery net: fec: Add software TSO support net: fec: Add Scatter/gather support net: fec: Increase buffer descriptor entry number net: fec: Factorize feature setting net: fec: Enable IP header hardware checksum net: fec: Factorize the .xmit transmit function bridge: fix compile error when compiling without IPv6 support bridge: fix smatch warning / potential null pointer dereference via-rhine: fix full-duplex with autoneg disable bnx2x: Enlarge the dorq threshold for VFs bnx2x: Check for UNDI in uncommon branch bnx2x: Fix 1G-baseT link bnx2x: Fix link for KR with swapped polarity lane sctp: Fix sk_ack_backlog wrap-around problem net/core: Add VF link state control policy net/fsl: xgmac_mdio is dependent on OF_MDIO net/fsl: Make xgmac_mdio read error message useful net_sched: drr: warn when qdisc is not work conserving ...
2014-06-06sysctl: convert use of typedef ctl_table to struct ctl_tableJoe Perches-1/+1
This typedef is unnecessary and should just be removed. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-06sysctl: allow for strict write position handlingKees Cook-2/+67
When writing to a sysctl string, each write, regardless of VFS position, begins writing the string from the start. This means the contents of the last write to the sysctl controls the string contents instead of the first: open("/proc/sys/kernel/modprobe", O_WRONLY) = 1 write(1, "AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA"..., 4096) = 4096 write(1, "/bin/true", 9) = 9 close(1) = 0 $ cat /proc/sys/kernel/modprobe /bin/true Expected behaviour would be to have the sysctl be "AAAA..." capped at maxlen (in this case KMOD_PATH_LEN: 256), instead of truncating to the contents of the second write. Similarly, multiple short writes would not append to the sysctl. The old behavior is unlike regular POSIX files enough that doing audits of software that interact with sysctls can end up in unexpected or dangerous situations. For example, "as long as the input starts with a trusted path" turns out to be an insufficient filter, as what must also happen is for the input to be entirely contained in a single write syscall -- not a common consideration, especially for high level tools. This provides kernel.sysctl_writes_strict as a way to make this behavior act in a less surprising manner for strings, and disallows non-zero file position when writing numeric sysctls (similar to what is already done when reading from non-zero file positions). For now, the default (0) is to warn about non-zero file position use, but retain the legacy behavior. Setting this to -1 disables the warning, and setting this to 1 enables the file position respecting behavior. [ fix build] [ move misplaced hunk, per Randy] Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: Randy Dunlap <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-06sysctl: refactor sysctl string writing logicKees Cook-7/+4
Consolidate buffer length checking with new-line/end-of-line checking. Additionally, instead of reading user memory twice, just do the assignment during the loop. This change doesn't affect the potential races here. It was already possible to read a sysctl that was in the middle of a write. In both cases, the string will always be NULL terminated. The pre-existing race remains a problem to be solved. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: Randy Dunlap <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-06sysctl: clean up char buffer argumentsKees Cook-7/+7
When writing to a sysctl string, each write, regardless of VFS position, began writing the string from the start. This meant the contents of the last write to the sysctl controlled the string contents instead of the first. This misbehavior was featured in an exploit against Chrome OS. While it's not in itself a vulnerability, it's a weirdness that isn't on the mind of most auditors: "This filter looks correct, the first line written would not be meaningful to sysctl" doesn't apply here, since the size of the write and the contents of the final write are what matter when writing to sysctls. This adds the sysctl kernel.sysctl_writes_strict to control the write behavior. The default (0) reports when VFS position is non-0 on a write, but retains legacy behavior, -1 disables the warning, and 1 enables the position-respecting behavior. The long-term plan here is to wait for userspace to be fixed in response to the new warning and to then switch the default kernel behavior to the new position-respecting behavior. This patch (of 4): The char buffer arguments are needlessly cast in weird places. Clean it up so things are easier to read. Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <> Cc: Randy Dunlap <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2014-06-05Merge branch 'x86/vdso' of ↵Linus Torvalds-0/+5
git:// into next Pull x86 cdso updates from Peter Anvin: "Vdso cleanups and improvements largely from Andy Lutomirski. This makes the vdso a lot less ''special''" * 'x86/vdso' of git:// x86/vdso, build: Make LE access macros clearer, host-safe x86/vdso, build: Fix cross-compilation from big-endian architectures x86/vdso, build: When vdso2c fails, unlink the output x86, vdso: Fix an OOPS accessing the HPET mapping w/o an HPET x86, mm: Replace arch_vma_name with vm_ops->name for vsyscalls x86, mm: Improve _install_special_mapping and fix x86 vdso naming mm, fs: Add vm_ops->name as an alternative to arch_vma_name x86, vdso: Fix an OOPS accessing the HPET mapping w/o an HPET x86, vdso: Remove vestiges of VDSO_PRELINK and some outdated comments x86, vdso: Move the vvar and hpet mappings next to the 64-bit vDSO x86, vdso: Move the 32-bit vdso special pages after the text x86, vdso: Reimplement preparation in build-time C x86, vdso: Move syscall and sysenter setup into kernel/cpu/common.c x86, vdso: Clean up 32-bit vs 64-bit vdso params x86, mm: Ensure correct alignment of the fixmap
2014-05-18sparc64: fix sparse warning in tsb.cSam Ravnborg-4/+0
Fix following warning: tsb.c:290:5: warning: symbol 'sysctl_tsb_ratio' was not declared. Should it be static? Add extern declaration in asm/setup.h and remove local declaration in kernel/sysctl.c Signed-off-by: Sam Ravnborg <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-05-14ipv4: make ip_local_reserved_ports per netnsWANG Cong-2/+2
ip_local_port_range is already per netns, so should ip_local_reserved_ports be. And since it is none by default we don't actually need it when we don't enable CONFIG_SYSCTL. By the way, rename inet_is_reserved_local_port() to inet_is_local_reserved_port() Cc: "David S. Miller" <> Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-05-05x86, vdso: Clean up 32-bit vs 64-bit vdso paramsAndy Lutomirski-0/+5
Rather than using 'vdso_enabled' and an awful #define, just call the parameters vdso32_enabled and vdso64_enabled. Signed-off-by: Andy Lutomirski <> Link: Signed-off-by: H. Peter Anvin <>