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this further reduces the number of source files which need to include
libc.h and thereby be potentially exposed to libc global state and
this will also facilitate further improvements like adding an inline
fast-path, if we want to do so later.
In all cases this is just a change from two volatile int to one.
POSIX specifies the result to have signed 32-bit range. on 32-bit
archs, the implicit conversion to long achieved the desired range
already, but when long is 64-bit, a cast is needed.
patch by Ed Schouten.
the memory model we use internally for atomics permits plain loads of
values which may be subject to concurrent modification without
requiring that a special load function be used. since a compiler is
free to make transformations that alter the number of loads or the way
in which loads are performed, the compiler is theoretically free to
break this usage. the most obvious concern is with atomic cas
constructs: something of the form tmp=*p;a_cas(p,tmp,f(tmp)); could be
transformed to a_cas(p,*p,f(*p)); where the latter is intended to show
multiple loads of *p whose resulting values might fail to be equal;
this would break the atomicity of the whole operation. but even more
fundamental breakage is possible.
with the changes being made now, objects that may be modified by
atomics are modeled as volatile, and the atomic operations performed
on them by other threads are modeled as asynchronous stores by
hardware which happens to be acting on the request of another thread.
such modeling of course does not itself address memory synchronization
between cores/cpus, but that aspect was already handled. this all
seems less than ideal, but it's the best we can do without mandating a
C11 compiler and using the C11 model for atomics.
in the case of pthread_once_t, the ABI type of the underlying object
is not volatile-qualified. so we are assuming that accessing the
object through a volatile-qualified lvalue via casts yields volatile
access semantics. the language of the C standard is somewhat unclear
on this matter, but this is an assumption the linux kernel also makes,
and seems to be the correct interpretation of the standard.
patch by Jens Gustedt. this fixes a bug reported by Nadav Har'El. the
underlying issue was that a left-shift by 16 bits after promotion of
unsigned short to int caused integer overflow. while some compilers
define this overflow case as "shifting into the sign bit", doing so
doesn't help; the sign bit then gets extended through the upper bits
in subsequent arithmetic as unsigned long long. this patch imposes a
promotion to unsigned prior to the shift, so that the result is
well-defined and matches the specified behavior.
setstate could use the results of previous initstate or setstate
calls (they return the old state buffer), but the documentation
requires that an initialized state buffer should be possible to
use in setstate immediately, which means that initstate should
save the generator parameters in it.
I also removed the copyright notice since it is present in the
due to the interface requirement of having the full state contained in
a single object of type unsigned int, it is difficult to provide a
reasonable-quality implementation; most good PRNGs are immediately
ruled out because they need larger state. the old rand_r gave very
poor output (very short period) in its lower bits; normally, it's
desirable to throw away the low bits (as in rand()) when using a LCG,
but this is not possible since the state is only 32 bits and we need
31 bits of output.
glibc's rand_r uses the same LCG as musl's, but runs it for 3
iterations and only takes 10-11 bits from each iteration to construct
the output value. this partially fixes the period issue, but
introduces bias: not all outputs have the same frequency, and many do
not appear at all. with such a low period, the bias is likely to be
I tried many approaches to "fix" rand_r, and the simplest I found
which made it pass the "dieharder" tests was applying this
transformation to the output. the "temper" function is taken from
mersenne twister, where it seems to have been chosen for some rigorous
properties; here, the only formal property I'm using is that it's
one-to-one and thus avoids introducing bias.
should further deficiencies in rand_r be reported, the obvious "best"
solution is applying a 32-bit cryptographic block cipher in CTR mode.
I identified several possible ciphers that could be used directly or
adapted, but as they would be a lot slower and larger, I do not see a
justification for using them unless the current rand_r proves
deficient for some real-world use.
this is a minor fix to increase the period of the obsolete rand_r a bit.
an include header in __rand48_step.c is fixed as well.
some applications rely on the low bits of rand() to be reasonably good
quality prng, so now it fixed by using the top bits of a 64 bit LCG,
this is simple, has small state and passes statistical tests.
D.E. Knuth attributes the multiplier to C.E. Haynes in TAOCP Vol2 3.3.4
i did some testing trying to switch malloc to use the new internal
lock with priority inheritance, and my malloc contention test got
20-100 times slower. if priority inheritance futexes are this slow,
it's simply too high a price to pay for avoiding priority inversion.
maybe we can consider them somewhere down the road once the kernel
folks get their act together on this (and perferably don't link it to
glibc's inefficient lock API)...
as such, i've switch __lock to use malloc's implementation of
lightweight locks, and updated all the users of the code to use an
array with a waiter count for their locks. this should give optimal
performance in the vast majority of cases, and it's simple.
malloc is still using its own internal copy of the lock code because
it seems to yield measurably better performance with -O3 when it's
inlined (20% or more difference in the contention stress test).
these interfaces are required to be thread-safe even though they are
not state-free. the random number sequence is shared across all