diff options
authorMatt Fleming <>2016-03-11 11:19:23 +0000
committerIngo Molnar <>2016-03-12 16:57:45 +0100
commit452308de61056a539352a9306c46716d7af8a1f1 (patch)
parent6e6867093de35141f0a76b66ac13f9f2e2c8e77a (diff)
x86/efi: Fix boot crash by always mapping boot service regions into new EFI page tables
Some machines have EFI regions in page zero (physical address 0x00000000) and historically that region has been added to the e820 map via trim_bios_range(), and ultimately mapped into the kernel page tables. It was not mapped via efi_map_regions() as one would expect. Alexis reports that with the new separate EFI page tables some boot services regions, such as page zero, are not mapped. This triggers an oops during the SetVirtualAddressMap() runtime call. For the EFI boot services quirk on x86 we need to memblock_reserve() boot services regions until after SetVirtualAddressMap(). Doing that while respecting the ownership of regions that may have already been reserved by the kernel was the motivation behind this commit: 7d68dc3f1003 ("x86, efi: Do not reserve boot services regions within reserved areas") That patch was merged at a time when the EFI runtime virtual mappings were inserted into the kernel page tables as described above, and the trick of setting ->numpages (and hence the region size) to zero to track regions that should not be freed in efi_free_boot_services() meant that we never mapped those regions in efi_map_regions(). Instead we were relying solely on the existing kernel mappings. Now that we have separate page tables we need to make sure the EFI boot services regions are mapped correctly, even if someone else has already called memblock_reserve(). Instead of stashing a tag in ->numpages, set the EFI_MEMORY_RUNTIME bit of ->attribute. Since it generally makes no sense to mark a boot services region as required at runtime, it's pretty much guaranteed the firmware will not have already set this bit. For the record, the specific circumstances under which Alexis triggered this bug was that an EFI runtime driver on his machine was responding to the EVT_SIGNAL_VIRTUAL_ADDRESS_CHANGE event during SetVirtualAddressMap(). The event handler for this driver looks like this, sub rsp,0x28 lea rdx,[rip+0x2445] # 0xaa948720 mov ecx,0x4 call func_aa9447c0 ; call to ConvertPointer(4, & 0xaa948720) mov r11,QWORD PTR [rip+0x2434] # 0xaa948720 xor eax,eax mov BYTE PTR [r11+0x1],0x1 add rsp,0x28 ret Which is pretty typical code for an EVT_SIGNAL_VIRTUAL_ADDRESS_CHANGE handler. The "mov r11, QWORD PTR [rip+0x2424]" was the faulting instruction because ConvertPointer() was being called to convert the address 0x0000000000000000, which when converted is left unchanged and remains 0x0000000000000000. The output of the oops trace gave the impression of a standard NULL pointer dereference bug, but because we're accessing physical addresses during ConvertPointer(), it wasn't. EFI boot services code is stored at that address on Alexis' machine. Reported-by: Alexis Murzeau <> Signed-off-by: Matt Fleming <> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <> Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <> Cc: Ben Hutchings <> Cc: Borislav Petkov <> Cc: Brian Gerst <> Cc: Denys Vlasenko <> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Maarten Lankhorst <> Cc: Matthew Garrett <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Raphael Hertzog <> Cc: Roger Shimizu <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Link: Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
1 files changed, 62 insertions, 17 deletions
diff --git a/arch/x86/platform/efi/quirks.c b/arch/x86/platform/efi/quirks.c
index 2d66db8f80f9..ed30e79347e8 100644
--- a/arch/x86/platform/efi/quirks.c
+++ b/arch/x86/platform/efi/quirks.c
@@ -131,6 +131,27 @@ efi_status_t efi_query_variable_store(u32 attributes, unsigned long size)
+ * Helper function for efi_reserve_boot_services() to figure out if we
+ * can free regions in efi_free_boot_services().
+ *
+ * Use this function to ensure we do not free regions owned by somebody
+ * else. We must only reserve (and then free) regions:
+ *
+ * - Not within any part of the kernel
+ * - Not the BIOS reserved area (E820_RESERVED, E820_NVS, etc)
+ */
+static bool can_free_region(u64 start, u64 size)
+ if (start + size > __pa_symbol(_text) && start <= __pa_symbol(_end))
+ return false;
+ if (!e820_all_mapped(start, start+size, E820_RAM))
+ return false;
+ return true;
* The UEFI specification makes it clear that the operating system is free to do
* whatever it wants with boot services code after ExitBootServices() has been
* called. Ignoring this recommendation a significant bunch of EFI implementations
@@ -147,26 +168,50 @@ void __init efi_reserve_boot_services(void)
efi_memory_desc_t *md = p;
u64 start = md->phys_addr;
u64 size = md->num_pages << EFI_PAGE_SHIFT;
+ bool already_reserved;
if (md->type != EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE &&
- /* Only reserve where possible:
- * - Not within any already allocated areas
- * - Not over any memory area (really needed, if above?)
- * - Not within any part of the kernel
- * - Not the bios reserved area
- */
- if ((start + size > __pa_symbol(_text)
- && start <= __pa_symbol(_end)) ||
- !e820_all_mapped(start, start+size, E820_RAM) ||
- memblock_is_region_reserved(start, size)) {
- /* Could not reserve, skip it */
- md->num_pages = 0;
- memblock_dbg("Could not reserve boot range [0x%010llx-0x%010llx]\n",
- start, start+size-1);
- } else
+ already_reserved = memblock_is_region_reserved(start, size);
+ /*
+ * Because the following memblock_reserve() is paired
+ * with free_bootmem_late() for this region in
+ * efi_free_boot_services(), we must be extremely
+ * careful not to reserve, and subsequently free,
+ * critical regions of memory (like the kernel image) or
+ * those regions that somebody else has already
+ * reserved.
+ *
+ * A good example of a critical region that must not be
+ * freed is page zero (first 4Kb of memory), which may
+ * contain boot services code/data but is marked
+ * E820_RESERVED by trim_bios_range().
+ */
+ if (!already_reserved) {
memblock_reserve(start, size);
+ /*
+ * If we are the first to reserve the region, no
+ * one else cares about it. We own it and can
+ * free it later.
+ */
+ if (can_free_region(start, size))
+ continue;
+ }
+ /*
+ * We don't own the region. We must not free it.
+ *
+ * Setting this bit for a boot services region really
+ * doesn't make sense as far as the firmware is
+ * concerned, but it does provide us with a way to tag
+ * those regions that must not be paired with
+ * free_bootmem_late().
+ */
+ md->attribute |= EFI_MEMORY_RUNTIME;
@@ -183,8 +228,8 @@ void __init efi_free_boot_services(void)
- /* Could not reserve boot area */
- if (!size)
+ /* Do not free, someone else owns it: */
+ if (md->attribute & EFI_MEMORY_RUNTIME)
free_bootmem_late(start, size);