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authorHorms <horms@verge.net.au>2006-04-01 01:38:15 +0200
committerAdrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>2006-04-01 01:38:15 +0200
commit08039264d55b1e4c481309d841b245b0bb5e9c68 (patch)
tree7a1e0440686fc7cdbb478fdce8de86981fc85c02 /Documentation/fujitsu
parentabe37e5a13c4055bdf8ea1d2e781d757285e1908 (diff)
downloadlinux-sh-08039264d55b1e4c481309d841b245b0bb5e9c68.tar.gz
Documentation: Make fujitsu/frv/kernel-ABI.txt 80 columns wide
Documentation: Make kernel-ABI.txt 80 columns wide Note that this only has line-wrapping and white-space changes. No text was changed at all. Signed-Off-By: Horms <horms@verge.net.au> Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/fujitsu')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fujitsu/frv/kernel-ABI.txt192
1 files changed, 110 insertions, 82 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/fujitsu/frv/kernel-ABI.txt b/Documentation/fujitsu/frv/kernel-ABI.txt
index 0ed9b0a779bc..8b0a5fc8bfd9 100644
--- a/Documentation/fujitsu/frv/kernel-ABI.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fujitsu/frv/kernel-ABI.txt
@@ -1,17 +1,19 @@
- =================================
- INTERNAL KERNEL ABI FOR FR-V ARCH
- =================================
-
-The internal FRV kernel ABI is not quite the same as the userspace ABI. A number of the registers
-are used for special purposed, and the ABI is not consistent between modules vs core, and MMU vs
-no-MMU.
-
-This partly stems from the fact that FRV CPUs do not have a separate supervisor stack pointer, and
-most of them do not have any scratch registers, thus requiring at least one general purpose
-register to be clobbered in such an event. Also, within the kernel core, it is possible to simply
-jump or call directly between functions using a relative offset. This cannot be extended to modules
-for the displacement is likely to be too far. Thus in modules the address of a function to call
-must be calculated in a register and then used, requiring two extra instructions.
+ =================================
+ INTERNAL KERNEL ABI FOR FR-V ARCH
+ =================================
+
+The internal FRV kernel ABI is not quite the same as the userspace ABI. A
+number of the registers are used for special purposed, and the ABI is not
+consistent between modules vs core, and MMU vs no-MMU.
+
+This partly stems from the fact that FRV CPUs do not have a separate
+supervisor stack pointer, and most of them do not have any scratch
+registers, thus requiring at least one general purpose register to be
+clobbered in such an event. Also, within the kernel core, it is possible to
+simply jump or call directly between functions using a relative offset.
+This cannot be extended to modules for the displacement is likely to be too
+far. Thus in modules the address of a function to call must be calculated
+in a register and then used, requiring two extra instructions.
This document has the following sections:
@@ -39,7 +41,8 @@ When a system call is made, the following registers are effective:
CPU OPERATING MODES
===================
-The FR-V CPU has three basic operating modes. In order of increasing capability:
+The FR-V CPU has three basic operating modes. In order of increasing
+capability:
(1) User mode.
@@ -47,42 +50,46 @@ The FR-V CPU has three basic operating modes. In order of increasing capability:
(2) Kernel mode.
- Normal kernel mode. There are many additional control registers available that may be
- accessed in this mode, in addition to all the stuff available to user mode. This has two
- submodes:
+ Normal kernel mode. There are many additional control registers
+ available that may be accessed in this mode, in addition to all the
+ stuff available to user mode. This has two submodes:
(a) Exceptions enabled (PSR.T == 1).
- Exceptions will invoke the appropriate normal kernel mode handler. On entry to the
- handler, the PSR.T bit will be cleared.
+ Exceptions will invoke the appropriate normal kernel mode
+ handler. On entry to the handler, the PSR.T bit will be cleared.
(b) Exceptions disabled (PSR.T == 0).
- No exceptions or interrupts may happen. Any mandatory exceptions will cause the CPU to
- halt unless the CPU is told to jump into debug mode instead.
+ No exceptions or interrupts may happen. Any mandatory exceptions
+ will cause the CPU to halt unless the CPU is told to jump into
+ debug mode instead.
(3) Debug mode.
- No exceptions may happen in this mode. Memory protection and management exceptions will be
- flagged for later consideration, but the exception handler won't be invoked. Debugging traps
- such as hardware breakpoints and watchpoints will be ignored. This mode is entered only by
- debugging events obtained from the other two modes.
+ No exceptions may happen in this mode. Memory protection and
+ management exceptions will be flagged for later consideration, but
+ the exception handler won't be invoked. Debugging traps such as
+ hardware breakpoints and watchpoints will be ignored. This mode is
+ entered only by debugging events obtained from the other two modes.
- All kernel mode registers may be accessed, plus a few extra debugging specific registers.
+ All kernel mode registers may be accessed, plus a few extra debugging
+ specific registers.
=================================
INTERNAL KERNEL-MODE REGISTER ABI
=================================
-There are a number of permanent register assignments that are set up by entry.S in the exception
-prologue. Note that there is a complete set of exception prologues for each of user->kernel
-transition and kernel->kernel transition. There are also user->debug and kernel->debug mode
-transition prologues.
+There are a number of permanent register assignments that are set up by
+entry.S in the exception prologue. Note that there is a complete set of
+exception prologues for each of user->kernel transition and kernel->kernel
+transition. There are also user->debug and kernel->debug mode transition
+prologues.
REGISTER FLAVOUR USE
- =============== ======= ====================================================
+ =============== ======= ==============================================
GR1 Supervisor stack pointer
GR15 Current thread info pointer
GR16 GP-Rel base register for small data
@@ -92,10 +99,12 @@ transition prologues.
GR31 NOMMU Destroyed by debug mode entry
GR31 MMU Destroyed by TLB miss kernel mode entry
CCR.ICC2 Virtual interrupt disablement tracking
- CCCR.CC3 Cleared by exception prologue (atomic op emulation)
+ CCCR.CC3 Cleared by exception prologue
+ (atomic op emulation)
SCR0 MMU See mmu-layout.txt.
SCR1 MMU See mmu-layout.txt.
- SCR2 MMU Save for EAR0 (destroyed by icache insns in debug mode)
+ SCR2 MMU Save for EAR0 (destroyed by icache insns
+ in debug mode)
SCR3 MMU Save for GR31 during debug exceptions
DAMR/IAMR NOMMU Fixed memory protection layout.
DAMR/IAMR MMU See mmu-layout.txt.
@@ -104,18 +113,21 @@ transition prologues.
Certain registers are also used or modified across function calls:
REGISTER CALL RETURN
- =============== =============================== ===============================
+ =============== =============================== ======================
GR0 Fixed Zero -
GR2 Function call frame pointer
GR3 Special Preserved
GR3-GR7 - Clobbered
- GR8 Function call arg #1 Return value (or clobbered)
- GR9 Function call arg #2 Return value MSW (or clobbered)
+ GR8 Function call arg #1 Return value
+ (or clobbered)
+ GR9 Function call arg #2 Return value MSW
+ (or clobbered)
GR10-GR13 Function call arg #3-#6 Clobbered
GR14 - Clobbered
GR15-GR16 Special Preserved
GR17-GR27 - Preserved
- GR28-GR31 Special Only accessed explicitly
+ GR28-GR31 Special Only accessed
+ explicitly
LR Return address after CALL Clobbered
CCR/CCCR - Mostly Clobbered
@@ -124,46 +136,53 @@ Certain registers are also used or modified across function calls:
INTERNAL DEBUG-MODE REGISTER ABI
================================
-This is the same as the kernel-mode register ABI for functions calls. The difference is that in
-debug-mode there's a different stack and a different exception frame. Almost all the global
-registers from kernel-mode (including the stack pointer) may be changed.
+This is the same as the kernel-mode register ABI for functions calls. The
+difference is that in debug-mode there's a different stack and a different
+exception frame. Almost all the global registers from kernel-mode
+(including the stack pointer) may be changed.
REGISTER FLAVOUR USE
- =============== ======= ====================================================
+ =============== ======= ==============================================
GR1 Debug stack pointer
GR16 GP-Rel base register for small data
- GR31 Current debug exception frame pointer (__debug_frame)
+ GR31 Current debug exception frame pointer
+ (__debug_frame)
SCR3 MMU Saved value of GR31
-Note that debug mode is able to interfere with the kernel's emulated atomic ops, so it must be
-exceedingly careful not to do any that would interact with the main kernel in this regard. Hence
-the debug mode code (gdbstub) is almost completely self-contained. The only external code used is
-the sprintf family of functions.
+Note that debug mode is able to interfere with the kernel's emulated atomic
+ops, so it must be exceedingly careful not to do any that would interact
+with the main kernel in this regard. Hence the debug mode code (gdbstub) is
+almost completely self-contained. The only external code used is the
+sprintf family of functions.
-Futhermore, break.S is so complicated because single-step mode does not switch off on entry to an
-exception. That means unless manually disabled, single-stepping will blithely go on stepping into
-things like interrupts. See gdbstub.txt for more information.
+Futhermore, break.S is so complicated because single-step mode does not
+switch off on entry to an exception. That means unless manually disabled,
+single-stepping will blithely go on stepping into things like interrupts.
+See gdbstub.txt for more information.
==========================
VIRTUAL INTERRUPT HANDLING
==========================
-Because accesses to the PSR is so slow, and to disable interrupts we have to access it twice (once
-to read and once to write), we don't actually disable interrupts at all if we don't have to. What
-we do instead is use the ICC2 condition code flags to note virtual disablement, such that if we
-then do take an interrupt, we note the flag, really disable interrupts, set another flag and resume
-execution at the point the interrupt happened. Setting condition flags as a side effect of an
-arithmetic or logical instruction is really fast. This use of the ICC2 only occurs within the
+Because accesses to the PSR is so slow, and to disable interrupts we have
+to access it twice (once to read and once to write), we don't actually
+disable interrupts at all if we don't have to. What we do instead is use
+the ICC2 condition code flags to note virtual disablement, such that if we
+then do take an interrupt, we note the flag, really disable interrupts, set
+another flag and resume execution at the point the interrupt happened.
+Setting condition flags as a side effect of an arithmetic or logical
+instruction is really fast. This use of the ICC2 only occurs within the
kernel - it does not affect userspace.
The flags we use are:
(*) CCR.ICC2.Z [Zero flag]
- Set to virtually disable interrupts, clear when interrupts are virtually enabled. Can be
- modified by logical instructions without affecting the Carry flag.
+ Set to virtually disable interrupts, clear when interrupts are
+ virtually enabled. Can be modified by logical instructions without
+ affecting the Carry flag.
(*) CCR.ICC2.C [Carry flag]
@@ -176,8 +195,9 @@ What happens is this:
ICC2.Z is 0, ICC2.C is 1.
- (2) An interrupt occurs. The exception prologue examines ICC2.Z and determines that nothing needs
- doing. This is done simply with an unlikely BEQ instruction.
+ (2) An interrupt occurs. The exception prologue examines ICC2.Z and
+ determines that nothing needs doing. This is done simply with an
+ unlikely BEQ instruction.
(3) The interrupts are disabled (local_irq_disable)
@@ -187,48 +207,56 @@ What happens is this:
ICC2.Z would be set to 0.
- A TIHI #2 instruction (trap #2 if condition HI - Z==0 && C==0) would be used to trap if
- interrupts were now virtually enabled, but physically disabled - which they're not, so the
- trap isn't taken. The kernel would then be back to state (1).
+ A TIHI #2 instruction (trap #2 if condition HI - Z==0 && C==0) would
+ be used to trap if interrupts were now virtually enabled, but
+ physically disabled - which they're not, so the trap isn't taken. The
+ kernel would then be back to state (1).
- (5) An interrupt occurs. The exception prologue examines ICC2.Z and determines that the interrupt
- shouldn't actually have happened. It jumps aside, and there disabled interrupts by setting
- PSR.PIL to 14 and then it clears ICC2.C.
+ (5) An interrupt occurs. The exception prologue examines ICC2.Z and
+ determines that the interrupt shouldn't actually have happened. It
+ jumps aside, and there disabled interrupts by setting PSR.PIL to 14
+ and then it clears ICC2.C.
(6) If interrupts were then saved and disabled again (local_irq_save):
- ICC2.Z would be shifted into the save variable and masked off (giving a 1).
+ ICC2.Z would be shifted into the save variable and masked off
+ (giving a 1).
- ICC2.Z would then be set to 1 (thus unchanged), and ICC2.C would be unaffected (ie: 0).
+ ICC2.Z would then be set to 1 (thus unchanged), and ICC2.C would be
+ unaffected (ie: 0).
(7) If interrupts were then restored from state (6) (local_irq_restore):
- ICC2.Z would be set to indicate the result of XOR'ing the saved value (ie: 1) with 1, which
- gives a result of 0 - thus leaving ICC2.Z set.
+ ICC2.Z would be set to indicate the result of XOR'ing the saved
+ value (ie: 1) with 1, which gives a result of 0 - thus leaving
+ ICC2.Z set.
ICC2.C would remain unaffected (ie: 0).
- A TIHI #2 instruction would be used to again assay the current state, but this would do
- nothing as Z==1.
+ A TIHI #2 instruction would be used to again assay the current state,
+ but this would do nothing as Z==1.
(8) If interrupts were then enabled (local_irq_enable):
- ICC2.Z would be cleared. ICC2.C would be left unaffected. Both flags would now be 0.
+ ICC2.Z would be cleared. ICC2.C would be left unaffected. Both
+ flags would now be 0.
- A TIHI #2 instruction again issued to assay the current state would then trap as both Z==0
- [interrupts virtually enabled] and C==0 [interrupts really disabled] would then be true.
+ A TIHI #2 instruction again issued to assay the current state would
+ then trap as both Z==0 [interrupts virtually enabled] and C==0
+ [interrupts really disabled] would then be true.
- (9) The trap #2 handler would simply enable hardware interrupts (set PSR.PIL to 0), set ICC2.C to
- 1 and return.
+ (9) The trap #2 handler would simply enable hardware interrupts
+ (set PSR.PIL to 0), set ICC2.C to 1 and return.
(10) Immediately upon returning, the pending interrupt would be taken.
-(11) The interrupt handler would take the path of actually processing the interrupt (ICC2.Z is
- clear, BEQ fails as per step (2)).
+(11) The interrupt handler would take the path of actually processing the
+ interrupt (ICC2.Z is clear, BEQ fails as per step (2)).
-(12) The interrupt handler would then set ICC2.C to 1 since hardware interrupts are definitely
- enabled - or else the kernel wouldn't be here.
+(12) The interrupt handler would then set ICC2.C to 1 since hardware
+ interrupts are definitely enabled - or else the kernel wouldn't be here.
(13) On return from the interrupt handler, things would be back to state (1).
-This trap (#2) is only available in kernel mode. In user mode it will result in SIGILL.
+This trap (#2) is only available in kernel mode. In user mode it will
+result in SIGILL.