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authorPaolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>2017-06-05 10:11:15 +0200
committerJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>2017-06-08 09:51:10 -0600
commit8f9bebc33dd718283183582fc4a762e178552fb8 (patch)
treee3fe5ffbc42b51a54a5a9457e006bae360862a77 /block
parent85d0331aedff4646b2a2b14561c8be3678ffcee2 (diff)
downloadlinux-sh-8f9bebc33dd718283183582fc4a762e178552fb8.tar.gz
block, bfq: access and cache blkg data only when safe
In blk-cgroup, operations on blkg objects are protected with the request_queue lock. This is no more the lock that protects I/O-scheduler operations in blk-mq. In fact, the latter are now protected with a finer-grained per-scheduler-instance lock. As a consequence, although blkg lookups are also rcu-protected, blk-mq I/O schedulers may see inconsistent data when they access blkg and blkg-related objects. BFQ does access these objects, and does incur this problem, in the following case. The blkg_lookup performed in bfq_get_queue, being protected (only) through rcu, may happen to return the address of a copy of the original blkg. If this is the case, then the blkg_get performed in bfq_get_queue, to pin down the blkg, is useless: it does not prevent blk-cgroup code from destroying both the original blkg and all objects directly or indirectly referred by the copy of the blkg. BFQ accesses these objects, which typically causes a crash for NULL-pointer dereference of memory-protection violation. Some additional protection mechanism should be added to blk-cgroup to address this issue. In the meantime, this commit provides a quick temporary fix for BFQ: cache (when safe) blkg data that might disappear right after a blkg_lookup. In particular, this commit exploits the following facts to achieve its goal without introducing further locks. Destroy operations on a blkg invoke, as a first step, hooks of the scheduler associated with the blkg. And these hooks are executed with bfqd->lock held for BFQ. As a consequence, for any blkg associated with the request queue an instance of BFQ is attached to, we are guaranteed that such a blkg is not destroyed, and that all the pointers it contains are consistent, while that instance is holding its bfqd->lock. A blkg_lookup performed with bfqd->lock held then returns a fully consistent blkg, which remains consistent until this lock is held. In more detail, this holds even if the returned blkg is a copy of the original one. Finally, also the object describing a group inside BFQ needs to be protected from destruction on the blkg_free of the original blkg (which invokes bfq_pd_free). This commit adds private refcounting for this object, to let it disappear only after no bfq_queue refers to it any longer. This commit also removes or updates some stale comments on locking issues related to blk-cgroup operations. Reported-by: Tomas Konir <tomas.konir@gmail.com> Reported-by: Lee Tibbert <lee.tibbert@gmail.com> Reported-by: Marco Piazza <mpiazza@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org> Tested-by: Tomas Konir <tomas.konir@gmail.com> Tested-by: Lee Tibbert <lee.tibbert@gmail.com> Tested-by: Marco Piazza <mpiazza@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'block')
-rw-r--r--block/bfq-cgroup.c116
-rw-r--r--block/bfq-iosched.c2
-rw-r--r--block/bfq-iosched.h23
3 files changed, 105 insertions, 36 deletions
diff --git a/block/bfq-cgroup.c b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
index c8a32fb345cf..78b2e0db4fb2 100644
--- a/block/bfq-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ BFQG_FLAG_FNS(idling)
BFQG_FLAG_FNS(empty)
#undef BFQG_FLAG_FNS
-/* This should be called with the queue_lock held. */
+/* This should be called with the scheduler lock held. */
static void bfqg_stats_update_group_wait_time(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
{
unsigned long long now;
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ static void bfqg_stats_update_group_wait_time(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
bfqg_stats_clear_waiting(stats);
}
-/* This should be called with the queue_lock held. */
+/* This should be called with the scheduler lock held. */
static void bfqg_stats_set_start_group_wait_time(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
struct bfq_group *curr_bfqg)
{
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ static void bfqg_stats_set_start_group_wait_time(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
bfqg_stats_mark_waiting(stats);
}
-/* This should be called with the queue_lock held. */
+/* This should be called with the scheduler lock held. */
static void bfqg_stats_end_empty_time(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
{
unsigned long long now;
@@ -203,12 +203,30 @@ struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
static void bfqg_get(struct bfq_group *bfqg)
{
- return blkg_get(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg));
+ bfqg->ref++;
}
void bfqg_put(struct bfq_group *bfqg)
{
- return blkg_put(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg));
+ bfqg->ref--;
+
+ if (bfqg->ref == 0)
+ kfree(bfqg);
+}
+
+static void bfqg_and_blkg_get(struct bfq_group *bfqg)
+{
+ /* see comments in bfq_bic_update_cgroup for why refcounting bfqg */
+ bfqg_get(bfqg);
+
+ blkg_get(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg));
+}
+
+void bfqg_and_blkg_put(struct bfq_group *bfqg)
+{
+ bfqg_put(bfqg);
+
+ blkg_put(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg));
}
void bfqg_stats_update_io_add(struct bfq_group *bfqg, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
@@ -312,7 +330,11 @@ void bfq_init_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, struct bfq_group *bfqg)
if (bfqq) {
bfqq->ioprio = bfqq->new_ioprio;
bfqq->ioprio_class = bfqq->new_ioprio_class;
- bfqg_get(bfqg);
+ /*
+ * Make sure that bfqg and its associated blkg do not
+ * disappear before entity.
+ */
+ bfqg_and_blkg_get(bfqg);
}
entity->parent = bfqg->my_entity; /* NULL for root group */
entity->sched_data = &bfqg->sched_data;
@@ -399,6 +421,8 @@ struct blkg_policy_data *bfq_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
return NULL;
}
+ /* see comments in bfq_bic_update_cgroup for why refcounting */
+ bfqg_get(bfqg);
return &bfqg->pd;
}
@@ -426,7 +450,7 @@ void bfq_pd_free(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
struct bfq_group *bfqg = pd_to_bfqg(pd);
bfqg_stats_exit(&bfqg->stats);
- return kfree(bfqg);
+ bfqg_put(bfqg);
}
void bfq_pd_reset_stats(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
@@ -496,9 +520,10 @@ struct bfq_group *bfq_find_set_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
* Move @bfqq to @bfqg, deactivating it from its old group and reactivating
* it on the new one. Avoid putting the entity on the old group idle tree.
*
- * Must be called under the queue lock; the cgroup owning @bfqg must
- * not disappear (by now this just means that we are called under
- * rcu_read_lock()).
+ * Must be called under the scheduler lock, to make sure that the blkg
+ * owning @bfqg does not disappear (see comments in
+ * bfq_bic_update_cgroup on guaranteeing the consistency of blkg
+ * objects).
*/
void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
struct bfq_group *bfqg)
@@ -519,16 +544,12 @@ void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, false, false);
else if (entity->on_st)
bfq_put_idle_entity(bfq_entity_service_tree(entity), entity);
- bfqg_put(bfqq_group(bfqq));
+ bfqg_and_blkg_put(bfqq_group(bfqq));
- /*
- * Here we use a reference to bfqg. We don't need a refcounter
- * as the cgroup reference will not be dropped, so that its
- * destroy() callback will not be invoked.
- */
entity->parent = bfqg->my_entity;
entity->sched_data = &bfqg->sched_data;
- bfqg_get(bfqg);
+ /* pin down bfqg and its associated blkg */
+ bfqg_and_blkg_get(bfqg);
if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) {
bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
@@ -545,8 +566,9 @@ void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
* @bic: the bic to move.
* @blkcg: the blk-cgroup to move to.
*
- * Move bic to blkcg, assuming that bfqd->queue is locked; the caller
- * has to make sure that the reference to cgroup is valid across the call.
+ * Move bic to blkcg, assuming that bfqd->lock is held; which makes
+ * sure that the reference to cgroup is valid across the call (see
+ * comments in bfq_bic_update_cgroup on this issue)
*
* NOTE: an alternative approach might have been to store the current
* cgroup in bfqq and getting a reference to it, reducing the lookup
@@ -604,6 +626,57 @@ void bfq_bic_update_cgroup(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio)
goto out;
bfqg = __bfq_bic_change_cgroup(bfqd, bic, bio_blkcg(bio));
+ /*
+ * Update blkg_path for bfq_log_* functions. We cache this
+ * path, and update it here, for the following
+ * reasons. Operations on blkg objects in blk-cgroup are
+ * protected with the request_queue lock, and not with the
+ * lock that protects the instances of this scheduler
+ * (bfqd->lock). This exposes BFQ to the following sort of
+ * race.
+ *
+ * The blkg_lookup performed in bfq_get_queue, protected
+ * through rcu, may happen to return the address of a copy of
+ * the original blkg. If this is the case, then the
+ * bfqg_and_blkg_get performed in bfq_get_queue, to pin down
+ * the blkg, is useless: it does not prevent blk-cgroup code
+ * from destroying both the original blkg and all objects
+ * directly or indirectly referred by the copy of the
+ * blkg.
+ *
+ * On the bright side, destroy operations on a blkg invoke, as
+ * a first step, hooks of the scheduler associated with the
+ * blkg. And these hooks are executed with bfqd->lock held for
+ * BFQ. As a consequence, for any blkg associated with the
+ * request queue this instance of the scheduler is attached
+ * to, we are guaranteed that such a blkg is not destroyed, and
+ * that all the pointers it contains are consistent, while we
+ * are holding bfqd->lock. A blkg_lookup performed with
+ * bfqd->lock held then returns a fully consistent blkg, which
+ * remains consistent until this lock is held.
+ *
+ * Thanks to the last fact, and to the fact that: (1) bfqg has
+ * been obtained through a blkg_lookup in the above
+ * assignment, and (2) bfqd->lock is being held, here we can
+ * safely use the policy data for the involved blkg (i.e., the
+ * field bfqg->pd) to get to the blkg associated with bfqg,
+ * and then we can safely use any field of blkg. After we
+ * release bfqd->lock, even just getting blkg through this
+ * bfqg may cause dangling references to be traversed, as
+ * bfqg->pd may not exist any more.
+ *
+ * In view of the above facts, here we cache, in the bfqg, any
+ * blkg data we may need for this bic, and for its associated
+ * bfq_queue. As of now, we need to cache only the path of the
+ * blkg, which is used in the bfq_log_* functions.
+ *
+ * Finally, note that bfqg itself needs to be protected from
+ * destruction on the blkg_free of the original blkg (which
+ * invokes bfq_pd_free). We use an additional private
+ * refcounter for bfqg, to let it disappear only after no
+ * bfq_queue refers to it any longer.
+ */
+ blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg), bfqg->blkg_path, sizeof(bfqg->blkg_path));
bic->blkcg_serial_nr = serial_nr;
out:
rcu_read_unlock();
@@ -640,8 +713,6 @@ static void bfq_reparent_leaf_entity(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
* @bfqd: the device data structure with the root group.
* @bfqg: the group to move from.
* @st: the service tree with the entities.
- *
- * Needs queue_lock to be taken and reference to be valid over the call.
*/
static void bfq_reparent_active_entities(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
struct bfq_group *bfqg,
@@ -692,8 +763,7 @@ void bfq_pd_offline(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
/*
* The idle tree may still contain bfq_queues belonging
* to exited task because they never migrated to a different
- * cgroup from the one being destroyed now. No one else
- * can access them so it's safe to act without any lock.
+ * cgroup from the one being destroyed now.
*/
bfq_flush_idle_tree(st);
diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
index 08ce45096350..ed93da2462ab 100644
--- a/block/bfq-iosched.c
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -3665,7 +3665,7 @@ void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
kmem_cache_free(bfq_pool, bfqq);
#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
- bfqg_put(bfqg);
+ bfqg_and_blkg_put(bfqg);
#endif
}
diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.h b/block/bfq-iosched.h
index ae783c06dfd9..5c3bf9861492 100644
--- a/block/bfq-iosched.h
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.h
@@ -759,6 +759,12 @@ struct bfq_group {
/* must be the first member */
struct blkg_policy_data pd;
+ /* cached path for this blkg (see comments in bfq_bic_update_cgroup) */
+ char blkg_path[128];
+
+ /* reference counter (see comments in bfq_bic_update_cgroup) */
+ int ref;
+
struct bfq_entity entity;
struct bfq_sched_data sched_data;
@@ -838,7 +844,7 @@ struct bfq_group *bfq_find_set_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
struct blkcg_gq *bfqg_to_blkg(struct bfq_group *bfqg);
struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
struct bfq_group *bfq_create_group_hierarchy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, int node);
-void bfqg_put(struct bfq_group *bfqg);
+void bfqg_and_blkg_put(struct bfq_group *bfqg);
#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
extern struct cftype bfq_blkcg_legacy_files[];
@@ -910,20 +916,13 @@ void bfq_add_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...) do { \
- char __pbuf[128]; \
- \
- blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqq_group(bfqq)), __pbuf, sizeof(__pbuf)); \
- blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d%c %s " fmt, (bfqq)->pid, \
+ blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d%c %s " fmt, (bfqq)->pid,\
bfq_bfqq_sync((bfqq)) ? 'S' : 'A', \
- __pbuf, ##args); \
+ bfqq_group(bfqq)->blkg_path, ##args); \
} while (0)
-#define bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg, fmt, args...) do { \
- char __pbuf[128]; \
- \
- blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg), __pbuf, sizeof(__pbuf)); \
- blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "%s " fmt, __pbuf, ##args); \
-} while (0)
+#define bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg, fmt, args...) \
+ blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "%s " fmt, (bfqg)->blkg_path, ##args)
#else /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */