path: root/include
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authorHugh Dickins <>2017-06-19 04:03:24 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <>2017-06-19 21:50:20 +0800
commit1be7107fbe18eed3e319a6c3e83c78254b693acb (patch)
tree6e5f778ac6673bfbd586d271c291807063c7a4bb /include
parent1132d5e7b64445b3fa3cb982e6723e33318f7655 (diff)
mm: larger stack guard gap, between vmas
Stack guard page is a useful feature to reduce a risk of stack smashing into a different mapping. We have been using a single page gap which is sufficient to prevent having stack adjacent to a different mapping. But this seems to be insufficient in the light of the stack usage in userspace. E.g. glibc uses as large as 64kB alloca() in many commonly used functions. Others use constructs liks gid_t buffer[NGROUPS_MAX] which is 256kB or stack strings with MAX_ARG_STRLEN. This will become especially dangerous for suid binaries and the default no limit for the stack size limit because those applications can be tricked to consume a large portion of the stack and a single glibc call could jump over the guard page. These attacks are not theoretical, unfortunatelly. Make those attacks less probable by increasing the stack guard gap to 1MB (on systems with 4k pages; but make it depend on the page size because systems with larger base pages might cap stack allocations in the PAGE_SIZE units) which should cover larger alloca() and VLA stack allocations. It is obviously not a full fix because the problem is somehow inherent, but it should reduce attack space a lot. One could argue that the gap size should be configurable from userspace, but that can be done later when somebody finds that the new 1MB is wrong for some special case applications. For now, add a kernel command line option (stack_guard_gap) to specify the stack gap size (in page units). Implementation wise, first delete all the old code for stack guard page: because although we could get away with accounting one extra page in a stack vma, accounting a larger gap can break userspace - case in point, a program run with "ulimit -S -v 20000" failed when the 1MB gap was counted for RLIMIT_AS; similar problems could come with RLIMIT_MLOCK and strict non-overcommit mode. Instead of keeping gap inside the stack vma, maintain the stack guard gap as a gap between vmas: using vm_start_gap() in place of vm_start (or vm_end_gap() in place of vm_end if VM_GROWSUP) in just those few places which need to respect the gap - mainly arch_get_unmapped_area(), and and the vma tree's subtree_gap support for that. Original-patch-by: Oleg Nesterov <> Original-patch-by: Michal Hocko <> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Tested-by: Helge Deller <> # parisc Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
Diffstat (limited to 'include')
1 files changed, 25 insertions, 28 deletions
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index b892e95d4929..6f543a47fc92 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -1393,12 +1393,6 @@ int clear_page_dirty_for_io(struct page *page);
int get_cmdline(struct task_struct *task, char *buffer, int buflen);
-/* Is the vma a continuation of the stack vma above it? */
-static inline int vma_growsdown(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr)
- return vma && (vma->vm_end == addr) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSDOWN);
static inline bool vma_is_anonymous(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
return !vma->vm_ops;
@@ -1414,28 +1408,6 @@ bool vma_is_shmem(struct vm_area_struct *vma);
static inline bool vma_is_shmem(struct vm_area_struct *vma) { return false; }
-static inline int stack_guard_page_start(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
- unsigned long addr)
- return (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSDOWN) &&
- (vma->vm_start == addr) &&
- !vma_growsdown(vma->vm_prev, addr);
-/* Is the vma a continuation of the stack vma below it? */
-static inline int vma_growsup(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr)
- return vma && (vma->vm_start == addr) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSUP);
-static inline int stack_guard_page_end(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
- unsigned long addr)
- return (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSUP) &&
- (vma->vm_end == addr) &&
- !vma_growsup(vma->vm_next, addr);
int vma_is_stack_for_current(struct vm_area_struct *vma);
extern unsigned long move_page_tables(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
@@ -2222,6 +2194,7 @@ void page_cache_async_readahead(struct address_space *mapping,
pgoff_t offset,
unsigned long size);
+extern unsigned long stack_guard_gap;
/* Generic expand stack which grows the stack according to GROWS{UP,DOWN} */
extern int expand_stack(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address);
@@ -2250,6 +2223,30 @@ static inline struct vm_area_struct * find_vma_intersection(struct mm_struct * m
return vma;
+static inline unsigned long vm_start_gap(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+ unsigned long vm_start = vma->vm_start;
+ if (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSDOWN) {
+ vm_start -= stack_guard_gap;
+ if (vm_start > vma->vm_start)
+ vm_start = 0;
+ }
+ return vm_start;
+static inline unsigned long vm_end_gap(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+ unsigned long vm_end = vma->vm_end;
+ if (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSUP) {
+ vm_end += stack_guard_gap;
+ if (vm_end < vma->vm_end)
+ vm_end = -PAGE_SIZE;
+ }
+ return vm_end;
static inline unsigned long vma_pages(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
return (vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;