path: root/kernel/bpf/arraymap.c
diff options
authorAlexei Starovoitov <>2016-03-07 21:57:15 -0800
committerDavid S. Miller <>2016-03-08 15:28:31 -0500
commit6c90598174322b8888029e40dd84a4eb01f56afe (patch)
tree43da16e515f4f37b154451aac72a312b380a12ba /kernel/bpf/arraymap.c
parente19494edab82f55a633911f25094581891bdc351 (diff)
bpf: pre-allocate hash map elements
If kprobe is placed on spin_unlock then calling kmalloc/kfree from bpf programs is not safe, since the following dead lock is possible: kfree->spin_lock(kmem_cache_node->lock)...spin_unlock->kprobe-> bpf_prog->map_update->kmalloc->spin_lock(of the same kmem_cache_node->lock) and deadlocks. The following solutions were considered and some implemented, but eventually discarded - kmem_cache_create for every map - add recursion check to slow-path of slub - use reserved memory in bpf_map_update for in_irq or in preempt_disabled - kmalloc via irq_work At the end pre-allocation of all map elements turned out to be the simplest solution and since the user is charged upfront for all the memory, such pre-allocation doesn't affect the user space visible behavior. Since it's impossible to tell whether kprobe is triggered in a safe location from kmalloc point of view, use pre-allocation by default and introduce new BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC flag. While testing of per-cpu hash maps it was discovered that alloc_percpu(GFP_ATOMIC) has odd corner cases and often fails to allocate memory even when 90% of it is free. The pre-allocation of per-cpu hash elements solves this problem as well. Turned out that bpf_map_update() quickly followed by bpf_map_lookup()+bpf_map_delete() is very common pattern used in many of iovisor/bcc/tools, so there is additional benefit of pre-allocation, since such use cases are must faster. Since all hash map elements are now pre-allocated we can remove atomic increment of htab->count and save few more cycles. Also add bpf_map_precharge_memlock() to check rlimit_memlock early to avoid large malloc/free done by users who don't have sufficient limits. Pre-allocation is done with vmalloc and alloc/free is done via percpu_freelist. Here are performance numbers for different pre-allocation algorithms that were implemented, but discarded in favor of percpu_freelist: 1 cpu: pcpu_ida 2.1M pcpu_ida nolock 2.3M bt 2.4M kmalloc 1.8M hlist+spinlock 2.3M pcpu_freelist 2.6M 4 cpu: pcpu_ida 1.5M pcpu_ida nolock 1.8M bt w/smp_align 1.7M bt no/smp_align 1.1M kmalloc 0.7M hlist+spinlock 0.2M pcpu_freelist 2.0M 8 cpu: pcpu_ida 0.7M bt w/smp_align 0.8M kmalloc 0.4M pcpu_freelist 1.5M 32 cpu: kmalloc 0.13M pcpu_freelist 0.49M pcpu_ida nolock is a modified percpu_ida algorithm without percpu_ida_cpu locks and without cross-cpu tag stealing. It's faster than existing percpu_ida, but not as fast as pcpu_freelist. bt is a variant of block/blk-mq-tag.c simlified and customized for bpf use case. bt w/smp_align is using cache line for every 'long' (similar to blk-mq-tag). bt no/smp_align allocates 'long' bitmasks continuously to save memory. It's comparable to percpu_ida and in some cases faster, but slower than percpu_freelist hlist+spinlock is the simplest free list with single spinlock. As expeceted it has very bad scaling in SMP. kmalloc is existing implementation which is still available via BPF_F_NO_PREALLOC flag. It's significantly slower in single cpu and in 8 cpu setup it's 3 times slower than pre-allocation with pcpu_freelist, but saves memory, so in cases where map->max_entries can be large and number of map update/delete per second is low, it may make sense to use it. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
Diffstat (limited to 'kernel/bpf/arraymap.c')
0 files changed, 0 insertions, 0 deletions