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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/2013-08-is-it-dead.pngbin0 -> 100825 bytes
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/GPpartitionReaders1.svg374
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/RCUApplicability.svg237
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/ReadersPartitionGP1.svg639
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.html2897
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.htmlx2741
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/RCU/Design/htmlqqz.sh108
-rw-r--r--Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/memory-barriers.txt8
-rw-r--r--include/linux/list.h14
-rw-r--r--include/linux/list_bl.h2
-rw-r--r--include/linux/list_nulls.h2
-rw-r--r--include/linux/rculist.h105
-rw-r--r--include/linux/rcupdate.h21
-rw-r--r--include/linux/rcutiny.h8
-rw-r--r--include/linux/rcutree.h4
-rw-r--r--include/linux/tracepoint.h4
-rw-r--r--init/main.c2
-rw-r--r--kernel/ksysfs.c26
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/srcu.c2
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/tree.c195
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/tree.h10
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h50
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/tree_trace.c37
-rw-r--r--kernel/rcu/update.c22
-rw-r--r--kernel/sched/core.c6
-rw-r--r--lib/list_debug.c2
27 files changed, 7359 insertions, 186 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/2013-08-is-it-dead.png b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/2013-08-is-it-dead.png
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7496a55e4e7b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/2013-08-is-it-dead.png
Binary files differ
diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/GPpartitionReaders1.svg b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/GPpartitionReaders1.svg
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4b4014fda770
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+ style="font-size:10px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;letter-spacing:0px;word-spacing:0px;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;fill-opacity:1;stroke:none;font-family:Symbol;-inkscape-font-specification:Symbol"
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+ x="396.10254"
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+ <text
+ xml:space="preserve"
+ style="font-size:10px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;letter-spacing:0px;word-spacing:0px;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;fill-opacity:1;stroke:none;font-family:Symbol;-inkscape-font-specification:Symbol"
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diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/RCUApplicability.svg b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/RCUApplicability.svg
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index 000000000000..ebcbeee391ed
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+ <!-- Line: box -->
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+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3017">Read-Mostly, Stale &amp;</tspan></text>
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+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"><tspan
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3019">Inconsistent Data OK</tspan></text>
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+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3021">(RCU Works Great!!!)</tspan></text>
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+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"><tspan
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3023">(RCU Works Well)</tspan></text>
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+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%"
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"><tspan
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3025">Read-Mostly, Need Consistent Data</tspan></text>
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+ font-weight="normal"
+ font-size="324"
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+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%"
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"><tspan
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3027">Read-Write, Need Consistent Data</tspan></text>
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+ y="6975"
+ font-style="normal"
+ font-weight="normal"
+ font-size="324"
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+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%">Update-Mostly, Need Consistent Data</text>
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+ font-style="normal"
+ font-weight="normal"
+ font-size="324"
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+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%"
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"><tspan
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ id="tspan3029">(RCU Might Be OK...)</tspan></text>
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+ font-weight="normal"
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+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%">(1) Provide Existence Guarantees For Update-Friendly Mechanisms</text>
+ <!-- Text -->
+ <text
+ xml:space="preserve"
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+ font-style="normal"
+ font-weight="normal"
+ font-size="324"
+ id="text32"
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%">(2) Provide Wait-Free Read-Side Primitives for Real-Time Use)</text>
+ <!-- Text -->
+ <text
+ xml:space="preserve"
+ x="7200"
+ y="7425"
+ font-style="normal"
+ font-weight="normal"
+ font-size="324"
+ id="text34"
+ style="font-size:427.63009644px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;font-family:Nimbus Sans L;-inkscape-font-specification:Nimbus Sans L"
+ sodipodi:linespacing="125%">(RCU is Very Unlikely to be the Right Tool For The Job, But it Can:</text>
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diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/ReadersPartitionGP1.svg b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/ReadersPartitionGP1.svg
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..48cd1623d4d4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/ReadersPartitionGP1.svg
@@ -0,0 +1,639 @@
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+ style="font-size:10px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;letter-spacing:0px;word-spacing:0px;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;fill-opacity:1;stroke:none;font-family:Symbol;-inkscape-font-specification:Symbol"
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+ style="font-size:10px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-stretch:normal;text-align:center;line-height:125%;letter-spacing:0px;word-spacing:0px;writing-mode:lr-tb;text-anchor:middle;fill:#000000;fill-opacity:1;stroke:none;font-family:Symbol;-inkscape-font-specification:Symbol"
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diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.html b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.html
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a725f9900ec8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.html
@@ -0,0 +1,2897 @@
+<!-- DO NOT HAND EDIT. -->
+<!-- Instead, edit Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.htmlx and run 'sh htmlqqz.sh Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements' -->
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+ <html>
+ <head><title>A Tour Through RCU's Requirements [LWN.net]</title>
+ <meta HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=utf-8">
+
+<h1>A Tour Through RCU's Requirements</h1>
+
+<p>Copyright IBM Corporation, 2015</p>
+<p>Author: Paul E.&nbsp;McKenney</p>
+<p><i>The initial version of this document appeared in the
+<a href="https://lwn.net/">LWN</a> articles
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/652156/">here</a>,
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/652677/">here</a>, and
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/653326/">here</a>.</i></p>
+
+<h2>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p>
+Read-copy update (RCU) is a synchronization mechanism that is often
+used as a replacement for reader-writer locking.
+RCU is unusual in that updaters do not block readers,
+which means that RCU's read-side primitives can be exceedingly fast
+and scalable.
+In addition, updaters can make useful forward progress concurrently
+with readers.
+However, all this concurrency between RCU readers and updaters does raise
+the question of exactly what RCU readers are doing, which in turn
+raises the question of exactly what RCU's requirements are.
+
+<p>
+This document therefore summarizes RCU's requirements, and can be thought
+of as an informal, high-level specification for RCU.
+It is important to understand that RCU's specification is primarily
+empirical in nature;
+in fact, I learned about many of these requirements the hard way.
+This situation might cause some consternation, however, not only
+has this learning process been a lot of fun, but it has also been
+a great privilege to work with so many people willing to apply
+technologies in interesting new ways.
+
+<p>
+All that aside, here are the categories of currently known RCU requirements:
+</p>
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Fundamental Requirements">
+ Fundamental Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Fundamental Non-Requirements">Fundamental Non-Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Parallelism Facts of Life">
+ Parallelism Facts of Life</a>
+<li> <a href="#Quality-of-Implementation Requirements">
+ Quality-of-Implementation Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Linux Kernel Complications">
+ Linux Kernel Complications</a>
+<li> <a href="#Software-Engineering Requirements">
+ Software-Engineering Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Other RCU Flavors">
+ Other RCU Flavors</a>
+<li> <a href="#Possible Future Changes">
+ Possible Future Changes</a>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This is followed by a <a href="#Summary">summary</a>,
+which is in turn followed by the inevitable
+<a href="#Answers to Quick Quizzes">answers to the quick quizzes</a>.
+
+<h2><a name="Fundamental Requirements">Fundamental Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+RCU's fundamental requirements are the closest thing RCU has to hard
+mathematical requirements.
+These are:
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Grace-Period Guarantee">
+ Grace-Period Guarantee</a>
+<li> <a href="#Publish-Subscribe Guarantee">
+ Publish-Subscribe Guarantee</a>
+<li> <a href="#Memory-Barrier Guarantees">
+ Memory-Barrier Guarantees</a>
+<li> <a href="#RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally">
+ RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally</a>
+<li> <a href="#Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade">
+ Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade</a>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a name="Grace-Period Guarantee">Grace-Period Guarantee</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU's grace-period guarantee is unusual in being premeditated:
+Jack Slingwine and I had this guarantee firmly in mind when we started
+work on RCU (then called &ldquo;rclock&rdquo;) in the early 1990s.
+That said, the past two decades of experience with RCU have produced
+a much more detailed understanding of this guarantee.
+
+<p>
+RCU's grace-period guarantee allows updaters to wait for the completion
+of all pre-existing RCU read-side critical sections.
+An RCU read-side critical section
+begins with the marker <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and ends with
+the marker <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+These markers may be nested, and RCU treats a nested set as one
+big RCU read-side critical section.
+Production-quality implementations of <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> are extremely lightweight, and in
+fact have exactly zero overhead in Linux kernels built for production
+use with <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>.
+
+<p>
+This guarantee allows ordering to be enforced with extremely low
+overhead to readers, for example:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 int x, y;
+ 2
+ 3 void thread0(void)
+ 4 {
+ 5 rcu_read_lock();
+ 6 r1 = READ_ONCE(x);
+ 7 r2 = READ_ONCE(y);
+ 8 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 9 }
+10
+11 void thread1(void)
+12 {
+13 WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+14 synchronize_rcu();
+15 WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Because the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;14 waits for
+all pre-existing readers, any instance of <tt>thread0()</tt> that
+loads a value of zero from <tt>x</tt> must complete before
+<tt>thread1()</tt> stores to <tt>y</tt>, so that instance must
+also load a value of zero from <tt>y</tt>.
+Similarly, any instance of <tt>thread0()</tt> that loads a value of
+one from <tt>y</tt> must have started after the
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> started, and must therefore also load
+a value of one from <tt>x</tt>.
+Therefore, the outcome:
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 0 &amp;&amp; r2 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+cannot happen.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 1"><b>Quick Quiz 1</b>:</a>
+Wait a minute!
+You said that updaters can make useful forward progress concurrently
+with readers, but pre-existing readers will block
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>!!!
+Just who are you trying to fool???
+<br><a href="#qq1answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+This scenario resembles one of the first uses of RCU in
+<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DYNIX">DYNIX/ptx</a>,
+which managed a distributed lock manager's transition into
+a state suitable for handling recovery from node failure,
+more or less as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 #define STATE_NORMAL 0
+ 2 #define STATE_WANT_RECOVERY 1
+ 3 #define STATE_RECOVERING 2
+ 4 #define STATE_WANT_NORMAL 3
+ 5
+ 6 int state = STATE_NORMAL;
+ 7
+ 8 void do_something_dlm(void)
+ 9 {
+10 int state_snap;
+11
+12 rcu_read_lock();
+13 state_snap = READ_ONCE(state);
+14 if (state_snap == STATE_NORMAL)
+15 do_something();
+16 else
+17 do_something_carefully();
+18 rcu_read_unlock();
+19 }
+20
+21 void start_recovery(void)
+22 {
+23 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_WANT_RECOVERY);
+24 synchronize_rcu();
+25 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_RECOVERING);
+26 recovery();
+27 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_WANT_NORMAL);
+28 synchronize_rcu();
+29 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_NORMAL);
+30 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The RCU read-side critical section in <tt>do_something_dlm()</tt>
+works with the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> in <tt>start_recovery()</tt>
+to guarantee that <tt>do_something()</tt> never runs concurrently
+with <tt>recovery()</tt>, but with little or no synchronization
+overhead in <tt>do_something_dlm()</tt>.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 2"><b>Quick Quiz 2</b>:</a>
+Why is the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;28 needed?
+<br><a href="#qq2answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+In order to avoid fatal problems such as deadlocks,
+an RCU read-side critical section must not contain calls to
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+Similarly, an RCU read-side critical section must not
+contain anything that waits, directly or indirectly, on completion of
+an invocation of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Although RCU's grace-period guarantee is useful in and of itself, with
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/573497/">quite a few use cases</a>,
+it would be good to be able to use RCU to coordinate read-side
+access to linked data structures.
+For this, the grace-period guarantee is not sufficient, as can
+be seen in function <tt>add_gp_buggy()</tt> below.
+We will look at the reader's code later, but in the meantime, just think of
+the reader as locklessly picking up the <tt>gp</tt> pointer,
+and, if the value loaded is non-<tt>NULL</tt>, locklessly accessing the
+<tt>-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>-&gt;b</tt> fields.
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool add_gp_buggy(int a, int b)
+ 2 {
+ 3 p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
+ 4 if (!p)
+ 5 return -ENOMEM;
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 if (rcu_access_pointer(gp)) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+11 p-&gt;a = a;
+12 p-&gt;b = a;
+13 gp = p; /* ORDERING BUG */
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The problem is that both the compiler and weakly ordered CPUs are within
+their rights to reorder this code as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool add_gp_buggy_optimized(int a, int b)
+ 2 {
+ 3 p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
+ 4 if (!p)
+ 5 return -ENOMEM;
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 if (rcu_access_pointer(gp)) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+<b>11 gp = p; /* ORDERING BUG */
+12 p-&gt;a = a;
+13 p-&gt;b = a;</b>
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+If an RCU reader fetches <tt>gp</tt> just after
+<tt>add_gp_buggy_optimized</tt> executes line&nbsp;11,
+it will see garbage in the <tt>-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>-&gt;b</tt>
+fields.
+And this is but one of many ways in which compiler and hardware optimizations
+could cause trouble.
+Therefore, we clearly need some way to prevent the compiler and the CPU from
+reordering in this manner, which brings us to the publish-subscribe
+guarantee discussed in the next section.
+
+<h3><a name="Publish-Subscribe Guarantee">Publish/Subscribe Guarantee</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU's publish-subscribe guarantee allows data to be inserted
+into a linked data structure without disrupting RCU readers.
+The updater uses <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> to insert the
+new data, and readers use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> to
+access data, whether new or old.
+The following shows an example of insertion:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool add_gp(int a, int b)
+ 2 {
+ 3 p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
+ 4 if (!p)
+ 5 return -ENOMEM;
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 if (rcu_access_pointer(gp)) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+11 p-&gt;a = a;
+12 p-&gt;b = a;
+13 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, p);
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> on line&nbsp;13 is conceptually
+equivalent to a simple assignment statement, but also guarantees
+that its assignment will
+happen after the two assignments in lines&nbsp;11 and&nbsp;12,
+similar to the C11 <tt>memory_order_release</tt> store operation.
+It also prevents any number of &ldquo;interesting&rdquo; compiler
+optimizations, for example, the use of <tt>gp</tt> as a scratch
+location immediately preceding the assignment.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 3"><b>Quick Quiz 3</b>:</a>
+But <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> does nothing to prevent the
+two assignments to <tt>p-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>p-&gt;b</tt>
+from being reordered.
+Can't that also cause problems?
+<br><a href="#qq3answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+It is tempting to assume that the reader need not do anything special
+to control its accesses to the RCU-protected data,
+as shown in <tt>do_something_gp_buggy()</tt> below:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool do_something_gp_buggy(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 p = gp; /* OPTIMIZATIONS GALORE!!! */
+ 5 if (p) {
+ 6 do_something(p-&gt;a, p-&gt;b);
+ 7 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 8 return true;
+ 9 }
+10 rcu_read_unlock();
+11 return false;
+12 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+However, this temptation must be resisted because there are a
+surprisingly large number of ways that the compiler
+(to say nothing of
+<a href="https://h71000.www7.hp.com/wizard/wiz_2637.html">DEC Alpha CPUs</a>)
+can trip this code up.
+For but one example, if the compiler were short of registers, it
+might choose to refetch from <tt>gp</tt> rather than keeping
+a separate copy in <tt>p</tt> as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool do_something_gp_buggy_optimized(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 if (gp) { /* OPTIMIZATIONS GALORE!!! */
+<b> 5 do_something(gp-&gt;a, gp-&gt;b);</b>
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 return true;
+ 8 }
+ 9 rcu_read_unlock();
+10 return false;
+11 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+If this function ran concurrently with a series of updates that
+replaced the current structure with a new one,
+the fetches of <tt>gp-&gt;a</tt>
+and <tt>gp-&gt;b</tt> might well come from two different structures,
+which could cause serious confusion.
+To prevent this (and much else besides), <tt>do_something_gp()</tt> uses
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> to fetch from <tt>gp</tt>:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool do_something_gp(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 p = rcu_dereference(gp);
+ 5 if (p) {
+ 6 do_something(p-&gt;a, p-&gt;b);
+ 7 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 8 return true;
+ 9 }
+10 rcu_read_unlock();
+11 return false;
+12 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> uses volatile casts and (for DEC Alpha)
+memory barriers in the Linux kernel.
+Should a
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/RCU/consume.2015.07.13a.pdf">high-quality implementation of C11 <tt>memory_order_consume</tt> [PDF]</a>
+ever appear, then <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> could be implemented
+as a <tt>memory_order_consume</tt> load.
+Regardless of the exact implementation, a pointer fetched by
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> may not be used outside of the
+outermost RCU read-side critical section containing that
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, unless protection of
+the corresponding data element has been passed from RCU to some
+other synchronization mechanism, most commonly locking or
+<a href="https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/RCU/rcuref.txt">reference counting</a>.
+
+<p>
+In short, updaters use <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> and readers
+use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, and these two RCU API elements
+work together to ensure that readers have a consistent view of
+newly added data elements.
+
+<p>
+Of course, it is also necessary to remove elements from RCU-protected
+data structures, for example, using the following process:
+
+<ol>
+<li> Remove the data element from the enclosing structure.
+<li> Wait for all pre-existing RCU read-side critical sections
+ to complete (because only pre-existing readers can possibly have
+ a reference to the newly removed data element).
+<li> At this point, only the updater has a reference to the
+ newly removed data element, so it can safely reclaim
+ the data element, for example, by passing it to <tt>kfree()</tt>.
+</ol>
+
+This process is implemented by <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool remove_gp_synchronous(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 struct foo *p;
+ 4
+ 5 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 6 p = rcu_access_pointer(gp);
+ 7 if (!p) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+11 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+12 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+13 synchronize_rcu();
+14 kfree(p);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+This function is straightforward, with line&nbsp;13 waiting for a grace
+period before line&nbsp;14 frees the old data element.
+This waiting ensures that readers will reach line&nbsp;7 of
+<tt>do_something_gp()</tt> before the data element referenced by
+<tt>p</tt> is freed.
+The <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> on line&nbsp;6 is similar to
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, except that:
+
+<ol>
+<li> The value returned by <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>
+ cannot be dereferenced.
+ If you want to access the value pointed to as well as
+ the pointer itself, use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>
+ instead of <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>.
+<li> The call to <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> need not be
+ protected.
+ In contrast, <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> must either be
+ within an RCU read-side critical section or in a code
+ segment where the pointer cannot change, for example, in
+ code protected by the corresponding update-side lock.
+</ol>
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 4"><b>Quick Quiz 4</b>:</a>
+Without the <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> or the
+<tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>, what destructive optimizations
+might the compiler make use of?
+<br><a href="#qq4answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+In short, RCU's publish-subscribe guarantee is provided by the combination
+of <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> and <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+This guarantee allows data elements to be safely added to RCU-protected
+linked data structures without disrupting RCU readers.
+This guarantee can be used in combination with the grace-period
+guarantee to also allow data elements to be removed from RCU-protected
+linked data structures, again without disrupting RCU readers.
+
+<p>
+This guarantee was only partially premeditated.
+DYNIX/ptx used an explicit memory barrier for publication, but had nothing
+resembling <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> for subscription, nor did it
+have anything resembling the <tt>smp_read_barrier_depends()</tt>
+that was later subsumed into <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+The need for these operations made itself known quite suddenly at a
+late-1990s meeting with the DEC Alpha architects, back in the days when
+DEC was still a free-standing company.
+It took the Alpha architects a good hour to convince me that any sort
+of barrier would ever be needed, and it then took me a good <i>two</i> hours
+to convince them that their documentation did not make this point clear.
+More recent work with the C and C++ standards committees have provided
+much education on tricks and traps from the compiler.
+In short, compilers were much less tricky in the early 1990s, but in
+2015, don't even think about omitting <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>!
+
+<h3><a name="Memory-Barrier Guarantees">Memory-Barrier Guarantees</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The previous section's simple linked-data-structure scenario clearly
+demonstrates the need for RCU's stringent memory-ordering guarantees on
+systems with more than one CPU:
+
+<ol>
+<li> Each CPU that has an RCU read-side critical section that
+ begins before <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> starts is
+ guaranteed to execute a full memory barrier between the time
+ that the RCU read-side critical section ends and the time that
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns.
+ Without this guarantee, a pre-existing RCU read-side critical section
+ might hold a reference to the newly removed <tt>struct foo</tt>
+ after the <tt>kfree()</tt> on line&nbsp;14 of
+ <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>.
+<li> Each CPU that has an RCU read-side critical section that ends
+ after <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns is guaranteed
+ to execute a full memory barrier between the time that
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> begins and the time that the RCU
+ read-side critical section begins.
+ Without this guarantee, a later RCU read-side critical section
+ running after the <tt>kfree()</tt> on line&nbsp;14 of
+ <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt> might
+ later run <tt>do_something_gp()</tt> and find the
+ newly deleted <tt>struct foo</tt>.
+<li> If the task invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> remains
+ on a given CPU, then that CPU is guaranteed to execute a full
+ memory barrier sometime during the execution of
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+ This guarantee ensures that the <tt>kfree()</tt> on
+ line&nbsp;14 of <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt> really does
+ execute after the removal on line&nbsp;11.
+<li> If the task invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> migrates
+ among a group of CPUs during that invocation, then each of the
+ CPUs in that group is guaranteed to execute a full memory barrier
+ sometime during the execution of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+ This guarantee also ensures that the <tt>kfree()</tt> on
+ line&nbsp;14 of <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt> really does
+ execute after the removal on
+ line&nbsp;11, but also in the case where the thread executing the
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> migrates in the meantime.
+</ol>
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 5"><b>Quick Quiz 5</b>:</a>
+Given that multiple CPUs can start RCU read-side critical sections
+at any time without any ordering whatsoever, how can RCU possibly tell whether
+or not a given RCU read-side critical section starts before a
+given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>?
+<br><a href="#qq5answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 6"><b>Quick Quiz 6</b>:</a>
+The first and second guarantees require unbelievably strict ordering!
+Are all these memory barriers <i> really</i> required?
+<br><a href="#qq6answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+Note that these memory-barrier requirements do not replace the fundamental
+RCU requirement that a grace period wait for all pre-existing readers.
+On the contrary, the memory barriers called out in this section must operate in
+such a way as to <i>enforce</i> this fundamental requirement.
+Of course, different implementations enforce this requirement in different
+ways, but enforce it they must.
+
+<h3><a name="RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally">RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The common-case RCU primitives are unconditional.
+They are invoked, they do their job, and they return, with no possibility
+of error, and no need to retry.
+This is a key RCU design philosophy.
+
+<p>
+However, this philosophy is pragmatic rather than pigheaded.
+If someone comes up with a good justification for a particular conditional
+RCU primitive, it might well be implemented and added.
+After all, this guarantee was reverse-engineered, not premeditated.
+The unconditional nature of the RCU primitives was initially an
+accident of implementation, and later experience with synchronization
+primitives with conditional primitives caused me to elevate this
+accident to a guarantee.
+Therefore, the justification for adding a conditional primitive to
+RCU would need to be based on detailed and compelling use cases.
+
+<h3><a name="Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade">Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+As far as RCU is concerned, it is always possible to carry out an
+update within an RCU read-side critical section.
+For example, that RCU read-side critical section might search for
+a given data element, and then might acquire the update-side
+spinlock in order to update that element, all while remaining
+in that RCU read-side critical section.
+Of course, it is necessary to exit the RCU read-side critical section
+before invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, however, this
+inconvenience can be avoided through use of the
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> and <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> API members
+described later in this document.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 7"><b>Quick Quiz 7</b>:</a>
+But how does the upgrade-to-write operation exclude other readers?
+<br><a href="#qq7answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+This guarantee allows lookup code to be shared between read-side
+and update-side code, and was premeditated, appearing in the earliest
+DYNIX/ptx RCU documentation.
+
+<h2><a name="Fundamental Non-Requirements">Fundamental Non-Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+RCU provides extremely lightweight readers, and its read-side guarantees,
+though quite useful, are correspondingly lightweight.
+It is therefore all too easy to assume that RCU is guaranteeing more
+than it really is.
+Of course, the list of things that RCU does not guarantee is infinitely
+long, however, the following sections list a few non-guarantees that
+have caused confusion.
+Except where otherwise noted, these non-guarantees were premeditated.
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Readers Impose Minimal Ordering">
+ Readers Impose Minimal Ordering</a>
+<li> <a href="#Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters">
+ Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters</a>
+<li> <a href="#Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers">
+ Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers</a>
+<li> <a href="#Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections">
+ Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections</a>
+<li> <a href="#Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods">
+ Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods</a>
+<li> <a href="#Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods">
+ Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods</a>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a name="Readers Impose Minimal Ordering">Readers Impose Minimal Ordering</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Reader-side markers such as <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> provide absolutely no ordering guarantees
+except through their interaction with the grace-period APIs such as
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+To see this, consider the following pair of threads:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+ 5 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 6 rcu_read_lock();
+ 7 WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+ 8 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 9 }
+10
+11 void thread1(void)
+12 {
+13 rcu_read_lock();
+14 r1 = READ_ONCE(y);
+15 rcu_read_unlock();
+16 rcu_read_lock();
+17 r2 = READ_ONCE(x);
+18 rcu_read_unlock();
+19 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+After <tt>thread0()</tt> and <tt>thread1()</tt> execute
+concurrently, it is quite possible to have
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 0)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+(that is, <tt>y</tt> appears to have been assigned before <tt>x</tt>),
+which would not be possible if <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> had much in the way of ordering
+properties.
+But they do not, so the CPU is within its rights
+to do significant reordering.
+This is by design: Any significant ordering constraints would slow down
+these fast-path APIs.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 8"><b>Quick Quiz 8</b>:</a>
+Can't the compiler also reorder this code?
+<br><a href="#qq8answer">Answer</a>
+
+<h3><a name="Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters">Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Neither <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> nor <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+exclude updates.
+All they do is to prevent grace periods from ending.
+The following example illustrates this:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 r1 = READ_ONCE(y);
+ 5 if (r1) {
+ 6 do_something_with_nonzero_x();
+ 7 r2 = READ_ONCE(x);
+ 8 WARN_ON(!r2); /* BUG!!! */
+ 9 }
+10 rcu_read_unlock();
+11 }
+12
+13 void thread1(void)
+14 {
+15 spin_lock(&amp;my_lock);
+16 WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+17 WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+18 spin_unlock(&amp;my_lock);
+19 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+If the <tt>thread0()</tt> function's <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+excluded the <tt>thread1()</tt> function's update,
+the <tt>WARN_ON()</tt> could never fire.
+But the fact is that <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> does not exclude
+much of anything aside from subsequent grace periods, of which
+<tt>thread1()</tt> has none, so the
+<tt>WARN_ON()</tt> can and does fire.
+
+<h3><a name="Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers">Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It might be tempting to assume that after <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+completes, there are no readers executing.
+This temptation must be avoided because
+new readers can start immediately after <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+starts, and <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> is under no
+obligation to wait for these new readers.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 9"><b>Quick Quiz 9</b>:</a>
+Suppose that synchronize_rcu() did wait until all readers had completed.
+Would the updater be able to rely on this?
+<br><a href="#qq9answer">Answer</a>
+
+<h3><a name="Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections">
+Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It is tempting to assume that if any part of one RCU read-side critical
+section precedes a given grace period, and if any part of another RCU
+read-side critical section follows that same grace period, then all of
+the first RCU read-side critical section must precede all of the second.
+However, this just isn't the case: A single grace period does not
+partition the set of RCU read-side critical sections.
+An example of this situation can be illustrated as follows, where
+<tt>x</tt>, <tt>y</tt>, and <tt>z</tt> are initially all zero:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(a, 1);
+ 5 WRITE_ONCE(b, 1);
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 }
+ 8
+ 9 void thread1(void)
+10 {
+11 r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
+12 synchronize_rcu();
+13 WRITE_ONCE(c, 1);
+14 }
+15
+16 void thread2(void)
+17 {
+18 rcu_read_lock();
+19 r2 = READ_ONCE(b);
+20 r3 = READ_ONCE(c);
+21 rcu_read_unlock();
+22 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+It turns out that the outcome:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 0 &amp;&amp; r3 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+is entirely possible.
+The following figure show how this can happen, with each circled
+<tt>QS</tt> indicating the point at which RCU recorded a
+<i>quiescent state</i> for each thread, that is, a state in which
+RCU knows that the thread cannot be in the midst of an RCU read-side
+critical section that started before the current grace period:
+
+<p><img src="GPpartitionReaders1.svg" alt="GPpartitionReaders1.svg" width="60%"></p>
+
+<p>
+If it is necessary to partition RCU read-side critical sections in this
+manner, it is necessary to use two grace periods, where the first
+grace period is known to end before the second grace period starts:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(a, 1);
+ 5 WRITE_ONCE(b, 1);
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 }
+ 8
+ 9 void thread1(void)
+10 {
+11 r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
+12 synchronize_rcu();
+13 WRITE_ONCE(c, 1);
+14 }
+15
+16 void thread2(void)
+17 {
+18 r2 = READ_ONCE(c);
+19 synchronize_rcu();
+20 WRITE_ONCE(d, 1);
+21 }
+22
+23 void thread3(void)
+24 {
+25 rcu_read_lock();
+26 r3 = READ_ONCE(b);
+27 r4 = READ_ONCE(d);
+28 rcu_read_unlock();
+29 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Here, if <tt>(r1 == 1)</tt>, then
+<tt>thread0()</tt>'s write to <tt>b</tt> must happen
+before the end of <tt>thread1()</tt>'s grace period.
+If in addition <tt>(r4 == 1)</tt>, then
+<tt>thread3()</tt>'s read from <tt>b</tt> must happen
+after the beginning of <tt>thread2()</tt>'s grace period.
+If it is also the case that <tt>(r2 == 1)</tt>, then the
+end of <tt>thread1()</tt>'s grace period must precede the
+beginning of <tt>thread2()</tt>'s grace period.
+This mean that the two RCU read-side critical sections cannot overlap,
+guaranteeing that <tt>(r3 == 1)</tt>.
+As a result, the outcome:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 1 &amp;&amp; r3 == 0 &amp;&amp; r4 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+cannot happen.
+
+<p>
+This non-requirement was also non-premeditated, but became apparent
+when studying RCU's interaction with memory ordering.
+
+<h3><a name="Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods">
+Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It is also tempting to assume that if an RCU read-side critical section
+happens between a pair of grace periods, then those grace periods cannot
+overlap.
+However, this temptation leads nowhere good, as can be illustrated by
+the following, with all variables initially zero:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(a, 1);
+ 5 WRITE_ONCE(b, 1);
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 }
+ 8
+ 9 void thread1(void)
+10 {
+11 r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
+12 synchronize_rcu();
+13 WRITE_ONCE(c, 1);
+14 }
+15
+16 void thread2(void)
+17 {
+18 rcu_read_lock();
+19 WRITE_ONCE(d, 1);
+20 r2 = READ_ONCE(c);
+21 rcu_read_unlock();
+22 }
+23
+24 void thread3(void)
+25 {
+26 r3 = READ_ONCE(d);
+27 synchronize_rcu();
+28 WRITE_ONCE(e, 1);
+29 }
+30
+31 void thread4(void)
+32 {
+33 rcu_read_lock();
+34 r4 = READ_ONCE(b);
+35 r5 = READ_ONCE(e);
+36 rcu_read_unlock();
+37 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+In this case, the outcome:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 1 &amp;&amp; r3 == 1 &amp;&amp; r4 == 0 &amp&amp; r5 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+is entirely possible, as illustrated below:
+
+<p><img src="ReadersPartitionGP1.svg" alt="ReadersPartitionGP1.svg" width="100%"></p>
+
+<p>
+Again, an RCU read-side critical section can overlap almost all of a
+given grace period, just so long as it does not overlap the entire
+grace period.
+As a result, an RCU read-side critical section cannot partition a pair
+of RCU grace periods.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 10"><b>Quick Quiz 10</b>:</a>
+How long a sequence of grace periods, each separated by an RCU read-side
+critical section, would be required to partition the RCU read-side
+critical sections at the beginning and end of the chain?
+<br><a href="#qq10answer">Answer</a>
+
+<h3><a name="Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods">
+Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+There was a time when disabling preemption on any given CPU would block
+subsequent grace periods.
+However, this was an accident of implementation and is not a requirement.
+And in the current Linux-kernel implementation, disabling preemption
+on a given CPU in fact does not block grace periods, as Oleg Nesterov
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20150614193825.GA19582@redhat.com">demonstrated</a>.
+
+<p>
+If you need a preempt-disable region to block grace periods, you need to add
+<tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>, for example
+as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 preempt_disable();
+ 2 rcu_read_lock();
+ 3 do_something();
+ 4 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 5 preempt_enable();
+ 6
+ 7 /* Spinlocks implicitly disable preemption. */
+ 8 spin_lock(&amp;mylock);
+ 9 rcu_read_lock();
+10 do_something();
+11 rcu_read_unlock();
+12 spin_unlock(&amp;mylock);
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+In theory, you could enter the RCU read-side critical section first,
+but it is more efficient to keep the entire RCU read-side critical
+section contained in the preempt-disable region as shown above.
+Of course, RCU read-side critical sections that extend outside of
+preempt-disable regions will work correctly, but such critical sections
+can be preempted, which forces <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> to do
+more work.
+And no, this is <i>not</i> an invitation to enclose all of your RCU
+read-side critical sections within preempt-disable regions, because
+doing so would degrade real-time response.
+
+<p>
+This non-requirement appeared with preemptible RCU.
+If you need a grace period that waits on non-preemptible code regions, use
+<a href="#Sched Flavor">RCU-sched</a>.
+
+<h2><a name="Parallelism Facts of Life">Parallelism Facts of Life</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+These parallelism facts of life are by no means specific to RCU, but
+the RCU implementation must abide by them.
+They therefore bear repeating:
+
+<ol>
+<li> Any CPU or task may be delayed at any time,
+ and any attempts to avoid these delays by disabling
+ preemption, interrupts, or whatever are completely futile.
+ This is most obvious in preemptible user-level
+ environments and in virtualized environments (where
+ a given guest OS's VCPUs can be preempted at any time by
+ the underlying hypervisor), but can also happen in bare-metal
+ environments due to ECC errors, NMIs, and other hardware
+ events.
+ Although a delay of more than about 20 seconds can result
+ in splats, the RCU implementation is obligated to use
+ algorithms that can tolerate extremely long delays, but where
+ &ldquo;extremely long&rdquo; is not long enough to allow
+ wrap-around when incrementing a 64-bit counter.
+<li> Both the compiler and the CPU can reorder memory accesses.
+ Where it matters, RCU must use compiler directives and
+ memory-barrier instructions to preserve ordering.
+<li> Conflicting writes to memory locations in any given cache line
+ will result in expensive cache misses.
+ Greater numbers of concurrent writes and more-frequent
+ concurrent writes will result in more dramatic slowdowns.
+ RCU is therefore obligated to use algorithms that have
+ sufficient locality to avoid significant performance and
+ scalability problems.
+<li> As a rough rule of thumb, only one CPU's worth of processing
+ may be carried out under the protection of any given exclusive
+ lock.
+ RCU must therefore use scalable locking designs.
+<li> Counters are finite, especially on 32-bit systems.
+ RCU's use of counters must therefore tolerate counter wrap,
+ or be designed such that counter wrap would take way more
+ time than a single system is likely to run.
+ An uptime of ten years is quite possible, a runtime
+ of a century much less so.
+ As an example of the latter, RCU's dyntick-idle nesting counter
+ allows 54 bits for interrupt nesting level (this counter
+ is 64 bits even on a 32-bit system).
+ Overflowing this counter requires 2<sup>54</sup>
+ half-interrupts on a given CPU without that CPU ever going idle.
+ If a half-interrupt happened every microsecond, it would take
+ 570 years of runtime to overflow this counter, which is currently
+ believed to be an acceptably long time.
+<li> Linux systems can have thousands of CPUs running a single
+ Linux kernel in a single shared-memory environment.
+ RCU must therefore pay close attention to high-end scalability.
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This last parallelism fact of life means that RCU must pay special
+attention to the preceding facts of life.
+The idea that Linux might scale to systems with thousands of CPUs would
+have been met with some skepticism in the 1990s, but these requirements
+would have otherwise have been unsurprising, even in the early 1990s.
+
+<h2><a name="Quality-of-Implementation Requirements">Quality-of-Implementation Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+These sections list quality-of-implementation requirements.
+Although an RCU implementation that ignores these requirements could
+still be used, it would likely be subject to limitations that would
+make it inappropriate for industrial-strength production use.
+Classes of quality-of-implementation requirements are as follows:
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Specialization">Specialization</a>
+<li> <a href="#Performance and Scalability">Performance and Scalability</a>
+<li> <a href="#Composability">Composability</a>
+<li> <a href="#Corner Cases">Corner Cases</a>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+These classes is covered in the following sections.
+
+<h3><a name="Specialization">Specialization</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU is and always has been intended primarily for read-mostly situations, as
+illustrated by the following figure.
+This means that RCU's read-side primitives are optimized, often at the
+expense of its update-side primitives.
+
+<p><img src="RCUApplicability.svg" alt="RCUApplicability.svg" width="70%"></p>
+
+<p>
+This focus on read-mostly situations means that RCU must interoperate
+with other synchronization primitives.
+For example, the <tt>add_gp()</tt> and <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>
+examples discussed earlier use RCU to protect readers and locking to
+coordinate updaters.
+However, the need extends much farther, requiring that a variety of
+synchronization primitives be legal within RCU read-side critical sections,
+including spinlocks, sequence locks, atomic operations, reference
+counters, and memory barriers.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 11"><b>Quick Quiz 11</b>:</a>
+What about sleeping locks?
+<br><a href="#qq11answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+It often comes as a surprise that many algorithms do not require a
+consistent view of data, but many can function in that mode,
+with network routing being the poster child.
+Internet routing algorithms take significant time to propagate
+updates, so that by the time an update arrives at a given system,
+that system has been sending network traffic the wrong way for
+a considerable length of time.
+Having a few threads continue to send traffic the wrong way for a
+few more milliseconds is clearly not a problem: In the worst case,
+TCP retransmissions will eventually get the data where it needs to go.
+In general, when tracking the state of the universe outside of the
+computer, some level of inconsistency must be tolerated due to
+speed-of-light delays if nothing else.
+
+<p>
+Furthermore, uncertainty about external state is inherent in many cases.
+For example, a pair of veternarians might use heartbeat to determine
+whether or not a given cat was alive.
+But how long should they wait after the last heartbeat to decide that
+the cat is in fact dead?
+Waiting less than 400 milliseconds makes no sense because this would
+mean that a relaxed cat would be considered to cycle between death
+and life more than 100 times per minute.
+Moreover, just as with human beings, a cat's heart might stop for
+some period of time, so the exact wait period is a judgment call.
+One of our pair of veternarians might wait 30 seconds before pronouncing
+the cat dead, while the other might insist on waiting a full minute.
+The two veternarians would then disagree on the state of the cat during
+the final 30 seconds of the minute following the last heartbeat, as
+fancifully illustrated below:
+
+<p><img src="2013-08-is-it-dead.png" alt="2013-08-is-it-dead.png" width="431"></p>
+
+<p>
+Interestingly enough, this same situation applies to hardware.
+When push comes to shove, how do we tell whether or not some
+external server has failed?
+We send messages to it periodically, and declare it failed if we
+don't receive a response within a given period of time.
+Policy decisions can usually tolerate short
+periods of inconsistency.
+The policy was decided some time ago, and is only now being put into
+effect, so a few milliseconds of delay is normally inconsequential.
+
+<p>
+However, there are algorithms that absolutely must see consistent data.
+For example, the translation between a user-level SystemV semaphore
+ID to the corresponding in-kernel data structure is protected by RCU,
+but it is absolutely forbidden to update a semaphore that has just been
+removed.
+In the Linux kernel, this need for consistency is accommodated by acquiring
+spinlocks located in the in-kernel data structure from within
+the RCU read-side critical section, and this is indicated by the
+green box in the figure above.
+Many other techniques may be used, and are in fact used within the
+Linux kernel.
+
+<p>
+In short, RCU is not required to maintain consistency, and other
+mechanisms may be used in concert with RCU when consistency is required.
+RCU's specialization allows it to do its job extremely well, and its
+ability to interoperate with other synchronization mechanisms allows
+the right mix of synchronization tools to be used for a given job.
+
+<h3><a name="Performance and Scalability">Performance and Scalability</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Energy efficiency is a critical component of performance today,
+and Linux-kernel RCU implementations must therefore avoid unnecessarily
+awakening idle CPUs.
+I cannot claim that this requirement was premeditated.
+In fact, I learned of it during a telephone conversation in which I
+was given &ldquo;frank and open&rdquo; feedback on the importance
+of energy efficiency in battery-powered systems and on specific
+energy-efficiency shortcomings of the Linux-kernel RCU implementation.
+In my experience, the battery-powered embedded community will consider
+any unnecessary wakeups to be extremely unfriendly acts.
+So much so that mere Linux-kernel-mailing-list posts are
+insufficient to vent their ire.
+
+<p>
+Memory consumption is not particularly important for in most
+situations, and has become decreasingly
+so as memory sizes have expanded and memory
+costs have plummeted.
+However, as I learned from Matt Mackall's
+<a href="http://elinux.org/Linux_Tiny-FAQ">bloatwatch</a>
+efforts, memory footprint is critically important on single-CPU systems with
+non-preemptible (<tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>) kernels, and thus
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20090113221724.GA15307@linux.vnet.ibm.com">tiny RCU</a>
+was born.
+Josh Triplett has since taken over the small-memory banner with his
+<a href="https://tiny.wiki.kernel.org/">Linux kernel tinification</a>
+project, which resulted in
+<a href="#Sleepable RCU">SRCU</a>
+becoming optional for those kernels not needing it.
+
+<p>
+The remaining performance requirements are, for the most part,
+unsurprising.
+For example, in keeping with RCU's read-side specialization,
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> should have negligible overhead (for
+example, suppression of a few minor compiler optimizations).
+Similarly, in non-preemptible environments, <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> should have exactly zero overhead.
+
+<p>
+In preemptible environments, in the case where the RCU read-side
+critical section was not preempted (as will be the case for the
+highest-priority real-time process), <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> should have minimal overhead.
+In particular, they should not contain atomic read-modify-write
+operations, memory-barrier instructions, preemption disabling,
+interrupt disabling, or backwards branches.
+However, in the case where the RCU read-side critical section was preempted,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> may acquire spinlocks and disable interrupts.
+This is why it is better to nest an RCU read-side critical section
+within a preempt-disable region than vice versa, at least in cases
+where that critical section is short enough to avoid unduly degrading
+real-time latencies.
+
+<p>
+The <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> grace-period-wait primitive is
+optimized for throughput.
+It may therefore incur several milliseconds of latency in addition to
+the duration of the longest RCU read-side critical section.
+On the other hand, multiple concurrent invocations of
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> are required to use batching optimizations
+so that they can be satisfied by a single underlying grace-period-wait
+operation.
+For example, in the Linux kernel, it is not unusual for a single
+grace-period-wait operation to serve more than
+<a href="https://www.usenix.org/conference/2004-usenix-annual-technical-conference/making-rcu-safe-deep-sub-millisecond-response">1,000 separate invocations</a>
+of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, thus amortizing the per-invocation
+overhead down to nearly zero.
+However, the grace-period optimization is also required to avoid
+measurable degradation of real-time scheduling and interrupt latencies.
+
+<p>
+In some cases, the multi-millisecond <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+latencies are unacceptable.
+In these cases, <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> may be used
+instead, reducing the grace-period latency down to a few tens of
+microseconds on small systems, at least in cases where the RCU read-side
+critical sections are short.
+There are currently no special latency requirements for
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> on large systems, but,
+consistent with the empirical nature of the RCU specification,
+that is subject to change.
+However, there most definitely are scalability requirements:
+A storm of <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> invocations on 4096
+CPUs should at least make reasonable forward progress.
+In return for its shorter latencies, <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>
+is permitted to impose modest degradation of real-time latency
+on non-idle online CPUs.
+That said, it will likely be necessary to take further steps to reduce this
+degradation, hopefully to roughly that of a scheduling-clock interrupt.
+
+<p>
+There are a number of situations where even
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>'s reduced grace-period
+latency is unacceptable.
+In these situations, the asynchronous <tt>call_rcu()</tt> can be
+used in place of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 struct foo {
+ 2 int a;
+ 3 int b;
+ 4 struct rcu_head rh;
+ 5 };
+ 6
+ 7 static void remove_gp_cb(struct rcu_head *rhp)
+ 8 {
+ 9 struct foo *p = container_of(rhp, struct foo, rh);
+10
+11 kfree(p);
+12 }
+13
+14 bool remove_gp_asynchronous(void)
+15 {
+16 struct foo *p;
+17
+18 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+19 p = rcu_dereference(gp);
+20 if (!p) {
+21 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+22 return false;
+23 }
+24 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+25 call_rcu(&amp;p-&gt;rh, remove_gp_cb);
+26 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+27 return true;
+28 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+A definition of <tt>struct foo</tt> is finally needed, and appears
+on lines&nbsp;1-5.
+The function <tt>remove_gp_cb()</tt> is passed to <tt>call_rcu()</tt>
+on line&nbsp;25, and will be invoked after the end of a subsequent
+grace period.
+This gets the same effect as <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>,
+but without forcing the updater to wait for a grace period to elapse.
+The <tt>call_rcu()</tt> function may be used in a number of
+situations where neither <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> nor
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> would be legal,
+including within preempt-disable code, <tt>local_bh_disable()</tt> code,
+interrupt-disable code, and interrupt handlers.
+However, even <tt>call_rcu()</tt> is illegal within NMI handlers.
+The callback function (<tt>remove_gp_cb()</tt> in this case) will be
+executed within softirq (software interrupt) environment within the
+Linux kernel,
+either within a real softirq handler or under the protection
+of <tt>local_bh_disable()</tt>.
+In both the Linux kernel and in userspace, it is bad practice to
+write an RCU callback function that takes too long.
+Long-running operations should be relegated to separate threads or
+(in the Linux kernel) workqueues.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 12"><b>Quick Quiz 12</b>:</a>
+Why does line&nbsp;19 use <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>?
+After all, <tt>call_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;25 stores into the
+structure, which would interact badly with concurrent insertions.
+Doesn't this mean that <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> is required?
+<br><a href="#qq12answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+However, all that <tt>remove_gp_cb()</tt> is doing is
+invoking <tt>kfree()</tt> on the data element.
+This is a common idiom, and is supported by <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>,
+which allows &ldquo;fire and forget&rdquo; operation as shown below:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 struct foo {
+ 2 int a;
+ 3 int b;
+ 4 struct rcu_head rh;
+ 5 };
+ 6
+ 7 bool remove_gp_faf(void)
+ 8 {
+ 9 struct foo *p;
+10
+11 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+12 p = rcu_dereference(gp);
+13 if (!p) {
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return false;
+16 }
+17 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+18 kfree_rcu(p, rh);
+19 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+20 return true;
+21 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Note that <tt>remove_gp_faf()</tt> simply invokes
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> and proceeds, without any need to pay any
+further attention to the subsequent grace period and <tt>kfree()</tt>.
+It is permissible to invoke <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> from the same
+environments as for <tt>call_rcu()</tt>.
+Interestingly enough, DYNIX/ptx had the equivalents of
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> and <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>, but not
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+This was due to the fact that RCU was not heavily used within DYNIX/ptx,
+so the very few places that needed something like
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> simply open-coded it.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 13"><b>Quick Quiz 13</b>:</a>
+Earlier it was claimed that <tt>call_rcu()</tt> and
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> allowed updaters to avoid being blocked
+by readers.
+But how can that be correct, given that the invocation of the callback
+and the freeing of the memory (respectively) must still wait for
+a grace period to elapse?
+<br><a href="#qq13answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+But what if the updater must wait for the completion of code to be
+executed after the end of the grace period, but has other tasks
+that can be carried out in the meantime?
+The polling-style <tt>get_state_synchronize_rcu()</tt> and
+<tt>cond_synchronize_rcu()</tt> functions may be used for this
+purpose, as shown below:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool remove_gp_poll(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 struct foo *p;
+ 4 unsigned long s;
+ 5
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 p = rcu_access_pointer(gp);
+ 8 if (!p) {
+ 9 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+10 return false;
+11 }
+12 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+13 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+14 s = get_state_synchronize_rcu();
+15 do_something_while_waiting();
+16 cond_synchronize_rcu(s);
+17 kfree(p);
+18 return true;
+19 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+On line&nbsp;14, <tt>get_state_synchronize_rcu()</tt> obtains a
+&ldquo;cookie&rdquo; from RCU,
+then line&nbsp;15 carries out other tasks,
+and finally, line&nbsp;16 returns immediately if a grace period has
+elapsed in the meantime, but otherwise waits as required.
+The need for <tt>get_state_synchronize_rcu</tt> and
+<tt>cond_synchronize_rcu()</tt> has appeared quite recently,
+so it is too early to tell whether they will stand the test of time.
+
+<p>
+RCU thus provides a range of tools to allow updaters to strike the
+required tradeoff between latency, flexibility and CPU overhead.
+
+<h3><a name="Composability">Composability</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Composability has received much attention in recent years, perhaps in part
+due to the collision of multicore hardware with object-oriented techniques
+designed in single-threaded environments for single-threaded use.
+And in theory, RCU read-side critical sections may be composed, and in
+fact may be nested arbitrarily deeply.
+In practice, as with all real-world implementations of composable
+constructs, there are limitations.
+
+<p>
+Implementations of RCU for which <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> generate no code, such as
+Linux-kernel RCU when <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>, can be
+nested arbitrarily deeply.
+After all, there is no overhead.
+Except that if all these instances of <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> are visible to the compiler,
+compilation will eventually fail due to exhausting memory,
+mass storage, or user patience, whichever comes first.
+If the nesting is not visible to the compiler, as is the case with
+mutually recursive functions each in its own translation unit,
+stack overflow will result.
+If the nesting takes the form of loops, either the control variable
+will overflow or (in the Linux kernel) you will get an RCU CPU stall warning.
+Nevertheless, this class of RCU implementations is one
+of the most composable constructs in existence.
+
+<p>
+RCU implementations that explicitly track nesting depth
+are limited by the nesting-depth counter.
+For example, the Linux kernel's preemptible RCU limits nesting to
+<tt>INT_MAX</tt>.
+This should suffice for almost all practical purposes.
+That said, a consecutive pair of RCU read-side critical sections
+between which there is an operation that waits for a grace period
+cannot be enclosed in another RCU read-side critical section.
+This is because it is not legal to wait for a grace period within
+an RCU read-side critical section: To do so would result either
+in deadlock or
+in RCU implicitly splitting the enclosing RCU read-side critical
+section, neither of which is conducive to a long-lived and prosperous
+kernel.
+
+<p>
+It is worth noting that RCU is not alone in limiting composability.
+For example, many transactional-memory implementations prohibit
+composing a pair of transactions separated by an irrevocable
+operation (for example, a network receive operation).
+For another example, lock-based critical sections can be composed
+surprisingly freely, but only if deadlock is avoided.
+
+<p>
+In short, although RCU read-side critical sections are highly composable,
+care is required in some situations, just as is the case for any other
+composable synchronization mechanism.
+
+<h3><a name="Corner Cases">Corner Cases</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+A given RCU workload might have an endless and intense stream of
+RCU read-side critical sections, perhaps even so intense that there
+was never a point in time during which there was not at least one
+RCU read-side critical section in flight.
+RCU cannot allow this situation to block grace periods: As long as
+all the RCU read-side critical sections are finite, grace periods
+must also be finite.
+
+<p>
+That said, preemptible RCU implementations could potentially result
+in RCU read-side critical sections being preempted for long durations,
+which has the effect of creating a long-duration RCU read-side
+critical section.
+This situation can arise only in heavily loaded systems, but systems using
+real-time priorities are of course more vulnerable.
+Therefore, RCU priority boosting is provided to help deal with this
+case.
+That said, the exact requirements on RCU priority boosting will likely
+evolve as more experience accumulates.
+
+<p>
+Other workloads might have very high update rates.
+Although one can argue that such workloads should instead use
+something other than RCU, the fact remains that RCU must
+handle such workloads gracefully.
+This requirement is another factor driving batching of grace periods,
+but it is also the driving force behind the checks for large numbers
+of queued RCU callbacks in the <tt>call_rcu()</tt> code path.
+Finally, high update rates should not delay RCU read-side critical
+sections, although some read-side delays can occur when using
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>, courtesy of this function's use
+of <tt>try_stop_cpus()</tt>.
+(In the future, <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> will be
+converted to use lighter-weight inter-processor interrupts (IPIs),
+but this will still disturb readers, though to a much smaller degree.)
+
+<p>
+Although all three of these corner cases were understood in the early
+1990s, a simple user-level test consisting of <tt>close(open(path))</tt>
+in a tight loop
+in the early 2000s suddenly provided a much deeper appreciation of the
+high-update-rate corner case.
+This test also motivated addition of some RCU code to react to high update
+rates, for example, if a given CPU finds itself with more than 10,000
+RCU callbacks queued, it will cause RCU to take evasive action by
+more aggressively starting grace periods and more aggressively forcing
+completion of grace-period processing.
+This evasive action causes the grace period to complete more quickly,
+but at the cost of restricting RCU's batching optimizations, thus
+increasing the CPU overhead incurred by that grace period.
+
+<h2><a name="Software-Engineering Requirements">
+Software-Engineering Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Between Murphy's Law and &ldquo;To err is human&rdquo;, it is necessary to
+guard against mishaps and misuse:
+
+<ol>
+<li> It is all too easy to forget to use <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+ everywhere that it is needed, so kernels built with
+ <tt>CONFIG_PROVE_RCU=y</tt> will spat if
+ <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> is used outside of an
+ RCU read-side critical section.
+ Update-side code can use <tt>rcu_dereference_protected()</tt>,
+ which takes a
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/371986/">lockdep expression</a>
+ to indicate what is providing the protection.
+ If the indicated protection is not provided, a lockdep splat
+ is emitted.
+
+ <p>
+ Code shared between readers and updaters can use
+ <tt>rcu_dereference_check()</tt>, which also takes a
+ lockdep expression, and emits a lockdep splat if neither
+ <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> nor the indicated protection
+ is in place.
+ In addition, <tt>rcu_dereference_raw()</tt> is used in those
+ (hopefully rare) cases where the required protection cannot
+ be easily described.
+ Finally, <tt>rcu_read_lock_held()</tt> is provided to
+ allow a function to verify that it has been invoked within
+ an RCU read-side critical section.
+ I was made aware of this set of requirements shortly after Thomas
+ Gleixner audited a number of RCU uses.
+<li> A given function might wish to check for RCU-related preconditions
+ upon entry, before using any other RCU API.
+ The <tt>rcu_lockdep_assert()</tt> does this job,
+ asserting the expression in kernels having lockdep enabled
+ and doing nothing otherwise.
+<li> It is also easy to forget to use <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt>
+ and <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, perhaps (incorrectly)
+ substituting a simple assignment.
+ To catch this sort of error, a given RCU-protected pointer may be
+ tagged with <tt>__rcu</tt>, after which running sparse
+ with <tt>CONFIG_SPARSE_RCU_POINTER=y</tt> will complain
+ about simple-assignment accesses to that pointer.
+ Arnd Bergmann made me aware of this requirement, and also
+ supplied the needed
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/376011/">patch series</a>.
+<li> Kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_DEBUG_OBJECTS_RCU_HEAD=y</tt>
+ will splat if a data element is passed to <tt>call_rcu()</tt>
+ twice in a row, without a grace period in between.
+ (This error is similar to a double free.)
+ The corresponding <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures that are
+ dynamically allocated are automatically tracked, but
+ <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures allocated on the stack
+ must be initialized with <tt>init_rcu_head_on_stack()</tt>
+ and cleaned up with <tt>destroy_rcu_head_on_stack()</tt>.
+ Similarly, statically allocated non-stack <tt>rcu_head</tt>
+ structures must be initialized with <tt>init_rcu_head()</tt>
+ and cleaned up with <tt>destroy_rcu_head()</tt>.
+ Mathieu Desnoyers made me aware of this requirement, and also
+ supplied the needed
+ <a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20100319013024.GA28456@Krystal">patch</a>.
+<li> An infinite loop in an RCU read-side critical section will
+ eventually trigger an RCU CPU stall warning splat, with
+ the duration of &ldquo;eventually&rdquo; being controlled by the
+ <tt>RCU_CPU_STALL_TIMEOUT</tt> <tt>Kconfig</tt> option, or,
+ alternatively, by the
+ <tt>rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_timeout</tt> boot/sysfs
+ parameter.
+ However, RCU is not obligated to produce this splat
+ unless there is a grace period waiting on that particular
+ RCU read-side critical section.
+ <p>
+ Some extreme workloads might intentionally delay
+ RCU grace periods, and systems running those workloads can
+ be booted with <tt>rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_suppress</tt>
+ to suppress the splats.
+ This kernel parameter may also be set via <tt>sysfs</tt>.
+ Furthermore, RCU CPU stall warnings are counter-productive
+ during sysrq dumps and during panics.
+ RCU therefore supplies the <tt>rcu_sysrq_start()</tt> and
+ <tt>rcu_sysrq_end()</tt> API members to be called before
+ and after long sysrq dumps.
+ RCU also supplies the <tt>rcu_panic()</tt> notifier that is
+ automatically invoked at the beginning of a panic to suppress
+ further RCU CPU stall warnings.
+
+ <p>
+ This requirement made itself known in the early 1990s, pretty
+ much the first time that it was necessary to debug a CPU stall.
+ That said, the initial implementation in DYNIX/ptx was quite
+ generic in comparison with that of Linux.
+<li> Although it would be very good to detect pointers leaking out
+ of RCU read-side critical sections, there is currently no
+ good way of doing this.
+ One complication is the need to distinguish between pointers
+ leaking and pointers that have been handed off from RCU to
+ some other synchronization mechanism, for example, reference
+ counting.
+<li> In kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_RCU_TRACE=y</tt>, RCU-related
+ information is provided via both debugfs and event tracing.
+<li> Open-coded use of <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> and
+ <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> to create typical linked
+ data structures can be surprisingly error-prone.
+ Therefore, RCU-protected
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU List APIs">linked lists</a>
+ and, more recently, RCU-protected
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/612100/">hash tables</a>
+ are available.
+ Many other special-purpose RCU-protected data structures are
+ available in the Linux kernel and the userspace RCU library.
+<li> Some linked structures are created at compile time, but still
+ require <tt>__rcu</tt> checking.
+ The <tt>RCU_POINTER_INITIALIZER()</tt> macro serves this
+ purpose.
+<li> It is not necessary to use <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt>
+ when creating linked structures that are to be published via
+ a single external pointer.
+ The <tt>RCU_INIT_POINTER()</tt> macro is provided for
+ this task and also for assigning <tt>NULL</tt> pointers
+ at runtime.
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This not a hard-and-fast list: RCU's diagnostic capabilities will
+continue to be guided by the number and type of usage bugs found
+in real-world RCU usage.
+
+<h2><a name="Linux Kernel Complications">Linux Kernel Complications</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel provides an interesting environment for all kinds of
+software, including RCU.
+Some of the relevant points of interest are as follows:
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Configuration">Configuration</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Firmware Interface">Firmware Interface</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Early Boot">Early Boot</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Interrupts and NMIs">
+ Interrupts and non-maskable interrupts (NMIs)</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Loadable Modules">Loadable Modules</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Hotplug CPU">Hotplug CPU</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Scheduler and RCU">Scheduler and RCU</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Tracing and RCU">Tracing and RCU</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Energy Efficiency">Energy Efficiency</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Memory Efficiency">Memory Efficiency</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability">
+ Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability</a>.
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This list is probably incomplete, but it does give a feel for the
+most notable Linux-kernel complications.
+Each of the following sections covers one of the above topics.
+
+<h3><a name="Configuration">Configuration</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU's goal is automatic configuration, so that almost nobody
+needs to worry about RCU's <tt>Kconfig</tt> options.
+And for almost all users, RCU does in fact work well
+&ldquo;out of the box.&rdquo;
+
+<p>
+However, there are specialized use cases that are handled by
+kernel boot parameters and <tt>Kconfig</tt> options.
+Unfortunately, the <tt>Kconfig</tt> system will explicitly ask users
+about new <tt>Kconfig</tt> options, which requires almost all of them
+be hidden behind a <tt>CONFIG_RCU_EXPERT</tt> <tt>Kconfig</tt> option.
+
+<p>
+This all should be quite obvious, but the fact remains that
+Linus Torvalds recently had to
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/CA+55aFy4wcCwaL4okTs8wXhGZ5h-ibecy_Meg9C4MNQrUnwMcg@mail.gmail.com">remind</a>
+me of this requirement.
+
+<h3><a name="Firmware Interface">Firmware Interface</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+In many cases, kernel obtains information about the system from the
+firmware, and sometimes things are lost in translation.
+Or the translation is accurate, but the original message is bogus.
+
+<p>
+For example, some systems' firmware overreports the number of CPUs,
+sometimes by a large factor.
+If RCU naively believed the firmware, as it used to do,
+it would create too many per-CPU kthreads.
+Although the resulting system will still run correctly, the extra
+kthreads needlessly consume memory and can cause confusion
+when they show up in <tt>ps</tt> listings.
+
+<p>
+RCU must therefore wait for a given CPU to actually come online before
+it can allow itself to believe that the CPU actually exists.
+The resulting &ldquo;ghost CPUs&rdquo; (which are never going to
+come online) cause a number of
+<a href="https://paulmck.livejournal.com/37494.html">interesting complications</a>.
+
+<h3><a name="Early Boot">Early Boot</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel's boot sequence is an interesting process,
+and RCU is used early, even before <tt>rcu_init()</tt>
+is invoked.
+In fact, a number of RCU's primitives can be used as soon as the
+initial task's <tt>task_struct</tt> is available and the
+boot CPU's per-CPU variables are set up.
+The read-side primitives (<tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>, <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>,
+and <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>) will operate normally very early on,
+as will <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Although <tt>call_rcu()</tt> may be invoked at any
+time during boot, callbacks are not guaranteed to be invoked until after
+the scheduler is fully up and running.
+This delay in callback invocation is due to the fact that RCU does not
+invoke callbacks until it is fully initialized, and this full initialization
+cannot occur until after the scheduler has initialized itself to the
+point where RCU can spawn and run its kthreads.
+In theory, it would be possible to invoke callbacks earlier,
+however, this is not a panacea because there would be severe restrictions
+on what operations those callbacks could invoke.
+
+<p>
+Perhaps surprisingly, <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>,
+<a href="#Bottom-Half Flavor"><tt>synchronize_rcu_bh()</tt></a>
+(<a href="#Bottom-Half Flavor">discussed below</a>),
+and
+<a href="#Sched Flavor"><tt>synchronize_sched()</tt></a>
+will all operate normally
+during very early boot, the reason being that there is only one CPU
+and preemption is disabled.
+This means that the call <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> (or friends)
+itself is a quiescent
+state and thus a grace period, so the early-boot implementation can
+be a no-op.
+
+<p>
+Both <tt>synchronize_rcu_bh()</tt> and <tt>synchronize_sched()</tt>
+continue to operate normally through the remainder of boot, courtesy
+of the fact that preemption is disabled across their RCU read-side
+critical sections and also courtesy of the fact that there is still
+only one CPU.
+However, once the scheduler starts initializing, preemption is enabled.
+There is still only a single CPU, but the fact that preemption is enabled
+means that the no-op implementation of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> no
+longer works in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> kernels.
+Therefore, as soon as the scheduler starts initializing, the early-boot
+fastpath is disabled.
+This means that <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> switches to its runtime
+mode of operation where it posts callbacks, which in turn means that
+any call to <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> will block until the corresponding
+callback is invoked.
+Unfortunately, the callback cannot be invoked until RCU's runtime
+grace-period machinery is up and running, which cannot happen until
+the scheduler has initialized itself sufficiently to allow RCU's
+kthreads to be spawned.
+Therefore, invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> during scheduler
+initialization can result in deadlock.
+
+<p><a name="Quick Quiz 14"><b>Quick Quiz 14</b>:</a>
+So what happens with <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> during
+scheduler initialization for <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>
+kernels?
+<br><a href="#qq14answer">Answer</a>
+
+<p>
+I learned of these boot-time requirements as a result of a series of
+system hangs.
+
+<h3><a name="Interrupts and NMIs">Interrupts and NMIs</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel has interrupts, and RCU read-side critical sections are
+legal within interrupt handlers and within interrupt-disabled regions
+of code, as are invocations of <tt>call_rcu()</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Some Linux-kernel architectures can enter an interrupt handler from
+non-idle process context, and then just never leave it, instead stealthily
+transitioning back to process context.
+This trick is sometimes used to invoke system calls from inside the kernel.
+These &ldquo;half-interrupts&rdquo; mean that RCU has to be very careful
+about how it counts interrupt nesting levels.
+I learned of this requirement the hard way during a rewrite
+of RCU's dyntick-idle code.
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel has non-maskable interrupts (NMIs), and
+RCU read-side critical sections are legal within NMI handlers.
+Thankfully, RCU update-side primitives, including
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt>, are prohibited within NMI handlers.
+
+<p>
+The name notwithstanding, some Linux-kernel architectures
+can have nested NMIs, which RCU must handle correctly.
+Andy Lutomirski
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/CALCETrXLq1y7e_dKFPgou-FKHB6Pu-r8+t-6Ds+8=va7anBWDA@mail.gmail.com">surprised me</a>
+with this requirement;
+he also kindly surprised me with
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/CALCETrXSY9JpW3uE6H8WYk81sg56qasA2aqmjMPsq5dOtzso=g@mail.gmail.com">an algorithm</a>
+that meets this requirement.
+
+<h3><a name="Loadable Modules">Loadable Modules</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel has loadable modules, and these modules can
+also be unloaded.
+After a given module has been unloaded, any attempt to call
+one of its functions results in a segmentation fault.
+The module-unload functions must therefore cancel any
+delayed calls to loadable-module functions, for example,
+any outstanding <tt>mod_timer()</tt> must be dealt with
+via <tt>del_timer_sync()</tt> or similar.
+
+<p>
+Unfortunately, there is no way to cancel an RCU callback;
+once you invoke <tt>call_rcu()</tt>, the callback function is
+going to eventually be invoked, unless the system goes down first.
+Because it is normally considered socially irresponsible to crash the system
+in response to a module unload request, we need some other way
+to deal with in-flight RCU callbacks.
+
+<p>
+RCU therefore provides
+<tt><a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/217484/">rcu_barrier()</a></tt>,
+which waits until all in-flight RCU callbacks have been invoked.
+If a module uses <tt>call_rcu()</tt>, its exit function should therefore
+prevent any future invocation of <tt>call_rcu()</tt>, then invoke
+<tt>rcu_barrier()</tt>.
+In theory, the underlying module-unload code could invoke
+<tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> unconditionally, but in practice this would
+incur unacceptable latencies.
+
+<p>
+Nikita Danilov noted this requirement for an analogous filesystem-unmount
+situation, and Dipankar Sarma incorporated <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> into RCU.
+The need for <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> for module unloading became
+apparent later.
+
+<h3><a name="Hotplug CPU">Hotplug CPU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel supports CPU hotplug, which means that CPUs
+can come and go.
+It is of course illegal to use any RCU API member from an offline CPU.
+This requirement was present from day one in DYNIX/ptx, but
+on the other hand, the Linux kernel's CPU-hotplug implementation
+is &ldquo;interesting.&rdquo;
+
+<p>
+The Linux-kernel CPU-hotplug implementation has notifiers that
+are used to allow the various kernel subsystems (including RCU)
+to respond appropriately to a given CPU-hotplug operation.
+Most RCU operations may be invoked from CPU-hotplug notifiers,
+including even normal synchronous grace-period operations
+such as <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+However, expedited grace-period operations such as
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> are not supported,
+due to the fact that current implementations block CPU-hotplug
+operations, which could result in deadlock.
+
+<p>
+In addition, all-callback-wait operations such as
+<tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> are also not supported, due to the
+fact that there are phases of CPU-hotplug operations where
+the outgoing CPU's callbacks will not be invoked until after
+the CPU-hotplug operation ends, which could also result in deadlock.
+
+<h3><a name="Scheduler and RCU">Scheduler and RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU depends on the scheduler, and the scheduler uses RCU to
+protect some of its data structures.
+This means the scheduler is forbidden from acquiring
+the runqueue locks and the priority-inheritance locks
+in the middle of an outermost RCU read-side critical section unless either
+(1)&nbsp;it releases them before exiting that same
+RCU read-side critical section, or
+(2)&nbsp;interrupts are disabled across
+that entire RCU read-side critical section.
+This same prohibition also applies (recursively!) to any lock that is acquired
+while holding any lock to which this prohibition applies.
+Adhering to this rule prevents preemptible RCU from invoking
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_special()</tt> while either runqueue or
+priority-inheritance locks are held, thus avoiding deadlock.
+
+<p>
+Prior to v4.4, it was only necessary to disable preemption across
+RCU read-side critical sections that acquired scheduler locks.
+In v4.4, expedited grace periods started using IPIs, and these
+IPIs could force a <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> to take the slowpath.
+Therefore, this expedited-grace-period change required disabling of
+interrupts, not just preemption.
+
+<p>
+For RCU's part, the preemptible-RCU <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+implementation must be written carefully to avoid similar deadlocks.
+In particular, <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> must tolerate an
+interrupt where the interrupt handler invokes both
+<tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+This possibility requires <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> to use
+negative nesting levels to avoid destructive recursion via
+interrupt handler's use of RCU.
+
+<p>
+This pair of mutual scheduler-RCU requirements came as a
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/453002/">complete surprise</a>.
+
+<p>
+As noted above, RCU makes use of kthreads, and it is necessary to
+avoid excessive CPU-time accumulation by these kthreads.
+This requirement was no surprise, but RCU's violation of it
+when running context-switch-heavy workloads when built with
+<tt>CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL=y</tt>
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/scalability/paper/BareMetal.2015.01.15b.pdf">did come as a surprise [PDF]</a>.
+RCU has made good progress towards meeting this requirement, even
+for context-switch-have <tt>CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL=y</tt> workloads,
+but there is room for further improvement.
+
+<h3><a name="Tracing and RCU">Tracing and RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It is possible to use tracing on RCU code, but tracing itself
+uses RCU.
+For this reason, <tt>rcu_dereference_raw_notrace()</tt>
+is provided for use by tracing, which avoids the destructive
+recursion that could otherwise ensue.
+This API is also used by virtualization in some architectures,
+where RCU readers execute in environments in which tracing
+cannot be used.
+The tracing folks both located the requirement and provided the
+needed fix, so this surprise requirement was relatively painless.
+
+<h3><a name="Energy Efficiency">Energy Efficiency</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Interrupting idle CPUs is considered socially unacceptable,
+especially by people with battery-powered embedded systems.
+RCU therefore conserves energy by detecting which CPUs are
+idle, including tracking CPUs that have been interrupted from idle.
+This is a large part of the energy-efficiency requirement,
+so I learned of this via an irate phone call.
+
+<p>
+Because RCU avoids interrupting idle CPUs, it is illegal to
+execute an RCU read-side critical section on an idle CPU.
+(Kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_PROVE_RCU=y</tt> will splat
+if you try it.)
+The <tt>RCU_NONIDLE()</tt> macro and <tt>_rcuidle</tt>
+event tracing is provided to work around this restriction.
+In addition, <tt>rcu_is_watching()</tt> may be used to
+test whether or not it is currently legal to run RCU read-side
+critical sections on this CPU.
+I learned of the need for diagnostics on the one hand
+and <tt>RCU_NONIDLE()</tt> on the other while inspecting
+idle-loop code.
+Steven Rostedt supplied <tt>_rcuidle</tt> event tracing,
+which is used quite heavily in the idle loop.
+
+<p>
+It is similarly socially unacceptable to interrupt an
+<tt>nohz_full</tt> CPU running in userspace.
+RCU must therefore track <tt>nohz_full</tt> userspace
+execution.
+And in
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/558284/"><tt>CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE=y</tt></a>
+kernels, RCU must separately track idle CPUs on the one hand and
+CPUs that are either idle or executing in userspace on the other.
+In both cases, RCU must be able to sample state at two points in
+time, and be able to determine whether or not some other CPU spent
+any time idle and/or executing in userspace.
+
+<p>
+These energy-efficiency requirements have proven quite difficult to
+understand and to meet, for example, there have been more than five
+clean-sheet rewrites of RCU's energy-efficiency code, the last of
+which was finally able to demonstrate
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/realtime/paper/AMPenergy.2013.04.19a.pdf">real energy savings running on real hardware [PDF]</a>.
+As noted earlier,
+I learned of many of these requirements via angry phone calls:
+Flaming me on the Linux-kernel mailing list was apparently not
+sufficient to fully vent their ire at RCU's energy-efficiency bugs!
+
+<h3><a name="Memory Efficiency">Memory Efficiency</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Although small-memory non-realtime systems can simply use Tiny RCU,
+code size is only one aspect of memory efficiency.
+Another aspect is the size of the <tt>rcu_head</tt> structure
+used by <tt>call_rcu()</tt> and <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>.
+Although this structure contains nothing more than a pair of pointers,
+it does appear in many RCU-protected data structures, including
+some that are size critical.
+The <tt>page</tt> structure is a case in point, as evidenced by
+the many occurrences of the <tt>union</tt> keyword within that structure.
+
+<p>
+This need for memory efficiency is one reason that RCU uses hand-crafted
+singly linked lists to track the <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures that
+are waiting for a grace period to elapse.
+It is also the reason why <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures do not contain
+debug information, such as fields tracking the file and line of the
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> or <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> that posted them.
+Although this information might appear in debug-only kernel builds at some
+point, in the meantime, the <tt>-&gt;func</tt> field will often provide
+the needed debug information.
+
+<p>
+However, in some cases, the need for memory efficiency leads to even
+more extreme measures.
+Returning to the <tt>page</tt> structure, the <tt>rcu_head</tt> field
+shares storage with a great many other structures that are used at
+various points in the corresponding page's lifetime.
+In order to correctly resolve certain
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/1439976106-137226-1-git-send-email-kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com">race conditions</a>,
+the Linux kernel's memory-management subsystem needs a particular bit
+to remain zero during all phases of grace-period processing,
+and that bit happens to map to the bottom bit of the
+<tt>rcu_head</tt> structure's <tt>-&gt;next</tt> field.
+RCU makes this guarantee as long as <tt>call_rcu()</tt>
+is used to post the callback, as opposed to <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>
+or some future &ldquo;lazy&rdquo;
+variant of <tt>call_rcu()</tt> that might one day be created for
+energy-efficiency purposes.
+
+<h3><a name="Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability">
+Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Expanding on the
+<a href="#Performance and Scalability">earlier discussion</a>,
+RCU is used heavily by hot code paths in performance-critical
+portions of the Linux kernel's networking, security, virtualization,
+and scheduling code paths.
+RCU must therefore use efficient implementations, especially in its
+read-side primitives.
+To that end, it would be good if preemptible RCU's implementation
+of <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> could be inlined, however, doing
+this requires resolving <tt>#include</tt> issues with the
+<tt>task_struct</tt> structure.
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel supports hardware configurations with up to
+4096 CPUs, which means that RCU must be extremely scalable.
+Algorithms that involve frequent acquisitions of global locks or
+frequent atomic operations on global variables simply cannot be
+tolerated within the RCU implementation.
+RCU therefore makes heavy use of a combining tree based on the
+<tt>rcu_node</tt> structure.
+RCU is required to tolerate all CPUs continuously invoking any
+combination of RCU's runtime primitives with minimal per-operation
+overhead.
+In fact, in many cases, increasing load must <i>decrease</i> the
+per-operation overhead, witness the batching optimizations for
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, <tt>call_rcu()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>, and <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt>.
+As a general rule, RCU must cheerfully accept whatever the
+rest of the Linux kernel decides to throw at it.
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel is used for real-time workloads, especially
+in conjunction with the
+<a href="https://rt.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page">-rt patchset</a>.
+The real-time-latency response requirements are such that the
+traditional approach of disabling preemption across RCU
+read-side critical sections is inappropriate.
+Kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> therefore
+use an RCU implementation that allows RCU read-side critical
+sections to be preempted.
+This requirement made its presence known after users made it
+clear that an earlier
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/107930/">real-time patch</a>
+did not meet their needs, in conjunction with some
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20050318002026.GA2693@us.ibm.com">RCU issues</a>
+encountered by a very early version of the -rt patchset.
+
+<p>
+In addition, RCU must make do with a sub-100-microsecond real-time latency
+budget.
+In fact, on smaller systems with the -rt patchset, the Linux kernel
+provides sub-20-microsecond real-time latencies for the whole kernel,
+including RCU.
+RCU's scalability and latency must therefore be sufficient for
+these sorts of configurations.
+To my surprise, the sub-100-microsecond real-time latency budget
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/realtime/paper/bigrt.2013.01.31a.LCA.pdf">
+applies to even the largest systems [PDF]</a>,
+up to and including systems with 4096 CPUs.
+This real-time requirement motivated the grace-period kthread, which
+also simplified handling of a number of race conditions.
+
+<p>
+Finally, RCU's status as a synchronization primitive means that
+any RCU failure can result in arbitrary memory corruption that can be
+extremely difficult to debug.
+This means that RCU must be extremely reliable, which in
+practice also means that RCU must have an aggressive stress-test
+suite.
+This stress-test suite is called <tt>rcutorture</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Although the need for <tt>rcutorture</tt> was no surprise,
+the current immense popularity of the Linux kernel is posing
+interesting&mdash;and perhaps unprecedented&mdash;validation
+challenges.
+To see this, keep in mind that there are well over one billion
+instances of the Linux kernel running today, given Android
+smartphones, Linux-powered televisions, and servers.
+This number can be expected to increase sharply with the advent of
+the celebrated Internet of Things.
+
+<p>
+Suppose that RCU contains a race condition that manifests on average
+once per million years of runtime.
+This bug will be occurring about three times per <i>day</i> across
+the installed base.
+RCU could simply hide behind hardware error rates, given that no one
+should really expect their smartphone to last for a million years.
+However, anyone taking too much comfort from this thought should
+consider the fact that in most jurisdictions, a successful multi-year
+test of a given mechanism, which might include a Linux kernel,
+suffices for a number of types of safety-critical certifications.
+In fact, rumor has it that the Linux kernel is already being used
+in production for safety-critical applications.
+I don't know about you, but I would feel quite bad if a bug in RCU
+killed someone.
+Which might explain my recent focus on validation and verification.
+
+<h2><a name="Other RCU Flavors">Other RCU Flavors</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+One of the more surprising things about RCU is that there are now
+no fewer than five <i>flavors</i>, or API families.
+In addition, the primary flavor that has been the sole focus up to
+this point has two different implementations, non-preemptible and
+preemptible.
+The other four flavors are listed below, with requirements for each
+described in a separate section.
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Bottom-Half Flavor">Bottom-Half Flavor</a>
+<li> <a href="#Sched Flavor">Sched Flavor</a>
+<li> <a href="#Sleepable RCU">Sleepable RCU</a>
+<li> <a href="#Tasks RCU">Tasks RCU</a>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a name="Bottom-Half Flavor">Bottom-Half Flavor</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The softirq-disable (AKA &ldquo;bottom-half&rdquo;,
+hence the &ldquo;_bh&rdquo; abbreviations)
+flavor of RCU, or <i>RCU-bh</i>, was developed by
+Dipankar Sarma to provide a flavor of RCU that could withstand the
+network-based denial-of-service attacks researched by Robert
+Olsson.
+These attacks placed so much networking load on the system
+that some of the CPUs never exited softirq execution,
+which in turn prevented those CPUs from ever executing a context switch,
+which, in the RCU implementation of that time, prevented grace periods
+from ever ending.
+The result was an out-of-memory condition and a system hang.
+
+<p>
+The solution was the creation of RCU-bh, which does
+<tt>local_bh_disable()</tt>
+across its read-side critical sections, and which uses the transition
+from one type of softirq processing to another as a quiescent state
+in addition to context switch, idle, user mode, and offline.
+This means that RCU-bh grace periods can complete even when some of
+the CPUs execute in softirq indefinitely, thus allowing algorithms
+based on RCU-bh to withstand network-based denial-of-service attacks.
+
+<p>
+Because
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_bh()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>
+disable and re-enable softirq handlers, any attempt to start a softirq
+handlers during the
+RCU-bh read-side critical section will be deferred.
+In this case, <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>
+will invoke softirq processing, which can take considerable time.
+One can of course argue that this softirq overhead should be associated
+with the code following the RCU-bh read-side critical section rather
+than <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>, but the fact
+is that most profiling tools cannot be expected to make this sort
+of fine distinction.
+For example, suppose that a three-millisecond-long RCU-bh read-side
+critical section executes during a time of heavy networking load.
+There will very likely be an attempt to invoke at least one softirq
+handler during that three milliseconds, but any such invocation will
+be delayed until the time of the <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>.
+This can of course make it appear at first glance as if
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt> was executing very slowly.
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU Per-Flavor API Table">RCU-bh API</a>
+includes
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_bh_check()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_bh_expedited()</tt>,
+<tt>call_rcu_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_barrier_bh()</tt>, and
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_bh_held()</tt>.
+
+<h3><a name="Sched Flavor">Sched Flavor</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Before preemptible RCU, waiting for an RCU grace period had the
+side effect of also waiting for all pre-existing interrupt
+and NMI handlers.
+However, there are legitimate preemptible-RCU implementations that
+do not have this property, given that any point in the code outside
+of an RCU read-side critical section can be a quiescent state.
+Therefore, <i>RCU-sched</i> was created, which follows &ldquo;classic&rdquo;
+RCU in that an RCU-sched grace period waits for for pre-existing
+interrupt and NMI handlers.
+In kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>, the RCU and RCU-sched
+APIs have identical implementations, while kernels built with
+<tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> provide a separate implementation for each.
+
+<p>
+Note well that in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> kernels,
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt>
+disable and re-enable preemption, respectively.
+This means that if there was a preemption attempt during the
+RCU-sched read-side critical section, <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt>
+will enter the scheduler, with all the latency and overhead entailed.
+Just as with <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>, this can make it look
+as if <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt> was executing very slowly.
+However, the highest-priority task won't be preempted, so that task
+will enjoy low-overhead <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt> invocations.
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU Per-Flavor API Table">RCU-sched API</a>
+includes
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched_notrace()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched_notrace()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_sched_check()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_sched_expedited()</tt>,
+<tt>call_rcu_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_barrier_sched()</tt>, and
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched_held()</tt>.
+However, anything that disables preemption also marks an RCU-sched
+read-side critical section, including
+<tt>preempt_disable()</tt> and <tt>preempt_enable()</tt>,
+<tt>local_irq_save()</tt> and <tt>local_irq_restore()</tt>,
+and so on.
+
+<h3><a name="Sleepable RCU">Sleepable RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+For well over a decade, someone saying &ldquo;I need to block within
+an RCU read-side critical section&rdquo; was a reliable indication
+that this someone did not understand RCU.
+After all, if you are always blocking in an RCU read-side critical
+section, you can probably afford to use a higher-overhead synchronization
+mechanism.
+However, that changed with the advent of the Linux kernel's notifiers,
+whose RCU read-side critical
+sections almost never sleep, but sometimes need to.
+This resulted in the introduction of
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/202847/">sleepable RCU</a>,
+or <i>SRCU</i>.
+
+<p>
+SRCU allows different domains to be defined, with each such domain
+defined by an instance of an <tt>srcu_struct</tt> structure.
+A pointer to this structure must be passed in to each SRCU function,
+for example, <tt>synchronize_srcu(&amp;ss)</tt>, where
+<tt>ss</tt> is the <tt>srcu_struct</tt> structure.
+The key benefit of these domains is that a slow SRCU reader in one
+domain does not delay an SRCU grace period in some other domain.
+That said, one consequence of these domains is that read-side code
+must pass a &ldquo;cookie&rdquo; from <tt>srcu_read_lock()</tt>
+to <tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt>, for example, as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 int idx;
+ 2
+ 3 idx = srcu_read_lock(&amp;ss);
+ 4 do_something();
+ 5 srcu_read_unlock(&amp;ss, idx);
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+As noted above, it is legal to block within SRCU read-side critical sections,
+however, with great power comes great responsibility.
+If you block forever in one of a given domain's SRCU read-side critical
+sections, then that domain's grace periods will also be blocked forever.
+Of course, one good way to block forever is to deadlock, which can
+happen if any operation in a given domain's SRCU read-side critical
+section can block waiting, either directly or indirectly, for that domain's
+grace period to elapse.
+For example, this results in a self-deadlock:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 int idx;
+ 2
+ 3 idx = srcu_read_lock(&amp;ss);
+ 4 do_something();
+ 5 synchronize_srcu(&amp;ss);
+ 6 srcu_read_unlock(&amp;ss, idx);
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+However, if line&nbsp;5 acquired a mutex that was held across
+a <tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt> for domain <tt>ss</tt>,
+deadlock would still be possible.
+Furthermore, if line&nbsp;5 acquired a mutex that was held across
+a <tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt> for some other domain <tt>ss1</tt>,
+and if an <tt>ss1</tt>-domain SRCU read-side critical section
+acquired another mutex that was held across as <tt>ss</tt>-domain
+<tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt>,
+deadlock would again be possible.
+Such a deadlock cycle could extend across an arbitrarily large number
+of different SRCU domains.
+Again, with great power comes great responsibility.
+
+<p>
+Unlike the other RCU flavors, SRCU read-side critical sections can
+run on idle and even offline CPUs.
+This ability requires that <tt>srcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt> contain memory barriers, which means
+that SRCU readers will run a bit slower than would RCU readers.
+It also motivates the <tt>smp_mb__after_srcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+API, which, in combination with <tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt>,
+guarantees a full memory barrier.
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU Per-Flavor API Table">SRCU API</a>
+includes
+<tt>srcu_read_lock()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_dereference()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_dereference_check()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_srcu_expedited()</tt>,
+<tt>call_srcu()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_barrier()</tt>, and
+<tt>srcu_read_lock_held()</tt>.
+It also includes
+<tt>DEFINE_SRCU()</tt>,
+<tt>DEFINE_STATIC_SRCU()</tt>, and
+<tt>init_srcu_struct()</tt>
+APIs for defining and initializing <tt>srcu_struct</tt> structures.
+
+<h3><a name="Tasks RCU">Tasks RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Some forms of tracing use &ldquo;tramopolines&rdquo; to handle the
+binary rewriting required to install different types of probes.
+It would be good to be able to free old trampolines, which sounds
+like a job for some form of RCU.
+However, because it is necessary to be able to install a trace
+anywhere in the code, it is not possible to use read-side markers
+such as <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+In addition, it does not work to have these markers in the trampoline
+itself, because there would need to be instructions following
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+Although <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> would guarantee that execution
+reached the <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>, it would not be able to
+guarantee that execution had completely left the trampoline.
+
+<p>
+The solution, in the form of
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/607117/"><i>Tasks RCU</i></a>,
+is to have implicit
+read-side critical sections that are delimited by voluntary context
+switches, that is, calls to <tt>schedule()</tt>,
+<tt>cond_resched_rcu_qs()</tt>, and
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_tasks()</tt>.
+In addition, transitions to and from userspace execution also delimit
+tasks-RCU read-side critical sections.
+
+<p>
+The tasks-RCU API is quite compact, consisting only of
+<tt>call_rcu_tasks()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_tasks()</tt>, and
+<tt>rcu_barrier_tasks()</tt>.
+
+<h2><a name="Possible Future Changes">Possible Future Changes</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+One of the tricks that RCU uses to attain update-side scalability is
+to increase grace-period latency with increasing numbers of CPUs.
+If this becomes a serious problem, it will be necessary to rework the
+grace-period state machine so as to avoid the need for the additional
+latency.
+
+<p>
+Expedited grace periods scan the CPUs, so their latency and overhead
+increases with increasing numbers of CPUs.
+If this becomes a serious problem on large systems, it will be necessary
+to do some redesign to avoid this scalability problem.
+
+<p>
+RCU disables CPU hotplug in a few places, perhaps most notably in the
+expedited grace-period and <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> operations.
+If there is a strong reason to use expedited grace periods in CPU-hotplug
+notifiers, it will be necessary to avoid disabling CPU hotplug.
+This would introduce some complexity, so there had better be a <i>very</i>
+good reason.
+
+<p>
+The tradeoff between grace-period latency on the one hand and interruptions
+of other CPUs on the other hand may need to be re-examined.
+The desire is of course for zero grace-period latency as well as zero
+interprocessor interrupts undertaken during an expedited grace period
+operation.
+While this ideal is unlikely to be achievable, it is quite possible that
+further improvements can be made.
+
+<p>
+The multiprocessor implementations of RCU use a combining tree that
+groups CPUs so as to reduce lock contention and increase cache locality.
+However, this combining tree does not spread its memory across NUMA
+nodes nor does it align the CPU groups with hardware features such
+as sockets or cores.
+Such spreading and alignment is currently believed to be unnecessary
+because the hotpath read-side primitives do not access the combining
+tree, nor does <tt>call_rcu()</tt> in the common case.
+If you believe that your architecture needs such spreading and alignment,
+then your architecture should also benefit from the
+<tt>rcutree.rcu_fanout_leaf</tt> boot parameter, which can be set
+to the number of CPUs in a socket, NUMA node, or whatever.
+If the number of CPUs is too large, use a fraction of the number of
+CPUs.
+If the number of CPUs is a large prime number, well, that certainly
+is an &ldquo;interesting&rdquo; architectural choice!
+More flexible arrangements might be considered, but only if
+<tt>rcutree.rcu_fanout_leaf</tt> has proven inadequate, and only
+if the inadequacy has been demonstrated by a carefully run and
+realistic system-level workload.
+
+<p>
+Please note that arrangements that require RCU to remap CPU numbers will
+require extremely good demonstration of need and full exploration of
+alternatives.
+
+<p>
+There is an embarrassingly large number of flavors of RCU, and this
+number has been increasing over time.
+Perhaps it will be possible to combine some at some future date.
+
+<p>
+RCU's various kthreads are reasonably recent additions.
+It is quite likely that adjustments will be required to more gracefully
+handle extreme loads.
+It might also be necessary to be able to relate CPU utilization by
+RCU's kthreads and softirq handlers to the code that instigated this
+CPU utilization.
+For example, RCU callback overhead might be charged back to the
+originating <tt>call_rcu()</tt> instance, though probably not
+in production kernels.
+
+<h2><a name="Summary">Summary</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+This document has presented more than two decade's worth of RCU
+requirements.
+Given that the requirements keep changing, this will not be the last
+word on this subject, but at least it serves to get an important
+subset of the requirements set forth.
+
+<h2><a name="Acknowledgments">Acknowledgments</a></h2>
+
+I am grateful to Steven Rostedt, Lai Jiangshan, Ingo Molnar,
+Oleg Nesterov, Borislav Petkov, Peter Zijlstra, Boqun Feng, and
+Andy Lutomirski for their help in rendering
+this article human readable, and to Michelle Rankin for her support
+of this effort.
+Other contributions are acknowledged in the Linux kernel's git archive.
+The cartoon is copyright (c) 2013 by Melissa Broussard,
+and is provided
+under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
+United States license.
+
+<h3><a name="Answers to Quick Quizzes">
+Answers to Quick Quizzes</a></h3>
+
+<a name="qq1answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 1</b>:
+Wait a minute!
+You said that updaters can make useful forward progress concurrently
+with readers, but pre-existing readers will block
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>!!!
+Just who are you trying to fool???
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+First, if updaters do not wish to be blocked by readers, they can use
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> or <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>, which will
+be discussed later.
+Second, even when using <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, the other
+update-side code does run concurrently with readers, whether pre-existing
+or not.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%201"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 1</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq2answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 2</b>:
+Why is the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;28 needed?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+Without that extra grace period, memory reordering could result in
+<tt>do_something_dlm()</tt> executing <tt>do_something()</tt>
+concurrently with the last bits of <tt>recovery()</tt>.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%202"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 2</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq3answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 3</b>:
+But <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> does nothing to prevent the
+two assignments to <tt>p-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>p-&gt;b</tt>
+from being reordered.
+Can't that also cause problems?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+No, it cannot.
+The readers cannot see either of these two fields until
+the assignment to <tt>gp</tt>, by which time both fields are
+fully initialized.
+So reordering the assignments
+to <tt>p-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>p-&gt;b</tt> cannot possibly
+cause any problems.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%203"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 3</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq4answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 4</b>:
+Without the <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> or the
+<tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>, what destructive optimizations
+might the compiler make use of?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+Let's start with what happens to <tt>do_something_gp()</tt>
+if it fails to use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+It could reuse a value formerly fetched from this same pointer.
+It could also fetch the pointer from <tt>gp</tt> in a byte-at-a-time
+manner, resulting in <i>load tearing</i>, in turn resulting a bytewise
+mash-up of two distince pointer values.
+It might even use value-speculation optimizations, where it makes a wrong
+guess, but by the time it gets around to checking the value, an update
+has changed the pointer to match the wrong guess.
+Too bad about any dereferences that returned pre-initialization garbage
+in the meantime!
+
+<p>
+For <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>, as long as all modifications
+to <tt>gp</tt> are carried out while holding <tt>gp_lock</tt>,
+the above optimizations are harmless.
+However,
+with <tt>CONFIG_SPARSE_RCU_POINTER=y</tt>,
+<tt>sparse</tt> will complain if you
+define <tt>gp</tt> with <tt>__rcu</tt> and then
+access it without using
+either <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> or <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%204"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 4</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq5answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 5</b>:
+Given that multiple CPUs can start RCU read-side critical sections
+at any time without any ordering whatsoever, how can RCU possibly tell whether
+or not a given RCU read-side critical section starts before a
+given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+If RCU cannot tell whether or not a given
+RCU read-side critical section starts before a
+given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>,
+then it must assume that the RCU read-side critical section
+started first.
+In other words, a given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+can avoid waiting on a given RCU read-side critical section only
+if it can prove that <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> started first.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%205"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 5</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq6answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 6</b>:
+The first and second guarantees require unbelievably strict ordering!
+Are all these memory barriers <i> really</i> required?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+Yes, they really are required.
+To see why the first guarantee is required, consider the following
+sequence of events:
+
+<ol>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>q = rcu_dereference(gp);
+ /* Very likely to return p. */</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>list_del_rcu(p);</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> starts.
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>do_something_with(q-&gt;a);
+ /* No smp_mb(), so might happen after kfree(). */</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns.
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>kfree(p);</tt>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+Therefore, there absolutely must be a full memory barrier between the
+end of the RCU read-side critical section and the end of the
+grace period.
+
+<p>
+The sequence of events demonstrating the necessity of the second rule
+is roughly similar:
+
+<ol>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>list_del_rcu(p);</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> starts.
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>q = rcu_dereference(gp);
+ /* Might return p if no memory barrier. */</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns.
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>kfree(p);</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>do_something_with(q-&gt;a); /* Boom!!! */</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+And similarly, without a memory barrier between the beginning of the
+grace period and the beginning of the RCU read-side critical section,
+CPU&nbsp;1 might end up accessing the freelist.
+
+<p>
+The &ldquo;as if&rdquo; rule of course applies, so that any implementation
+that acts as if the appropriate memory barriers were in place is a
+correct implementation.
+That said, it is much easier to fool yourself into believing that you have
+adhered to the as-if rule than it is to actually adhere to it!
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%206"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 6</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq7answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 7</b>:
+But how does the upgrade-to-write operation exclude other readers?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+It doesn't, just like normal RCU updates, which also do not exclude
+RCU readers.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%207"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 7</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq8answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 8</b>:
+Can't the compiler also reorder this code?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+No, the volatile casts in <tt>READ_ONCE()</tt> and
+<tt>WRITE_ONCE()</tt> prevent the compiler from reordering in
+this particular case.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%208"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 8</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq9answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 9</b>:
+Suppose that synchronize_rcu() did wait until all readers had completed.
+Would the updater be able to rely on this?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+No.
+Even if <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> were to wait until
+all readers had completed, a new reader might start immediately after
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> completed.
+Therefore, the code following
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> cannot rely on there being no readers
+in any case.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%209"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 9</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq10answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 10</b>:
+How long a sequence of grace periods, each separated by an RCU read-side
+critical section, would be required to partition the RCU read-side
+critical sections at the beginning and end of the chain?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+In theory, an infinite number.
+In practice, an unknown number that is sensitive to both implementation
+details and timing considerations.
+Therefore, even in practice, RCU users must abide by the theoretical rather
+than the practical answer.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%2010"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 10</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq11answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 11</b>:
+What about sleeping locks?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+These are forbidden within Linux-kernel RCU read-side critical sections
+because it is not legal to place a quiescent state (in this case,
+voluntary context switch) within an RCU read-side critical section.
+However, sleeping locks may be used within userspace RCU read-side critical
+sections, and also within Linux-kernel sleepable RCU
+<a href="#Sleepable RCU">(SRCU)</a>
+read-side critical sections.
+In addition, the -rt patchset turns spinlocks into a sleeping locks so
+that the corresponding critical sections can be preempted, which
+also means that these sleeplockified spinlocks (but not other sleeping locks!)
+may be acquire within -rt-Linux-kernel RCU read-side critical sections.
+
+<p>
+Note that it <i>is</i> legal for a normal RCU read-side critical section
+to conditionally acquire a sleeping locks (as in <tt>mutex_trylock()</tt>),
+but only as long as it does not loop indefinitely attempting to
+conditionally acquire that sleeping locks.
+The key point is that things like <tt>mutex_trylock()</tt>
+either return with the mutex held, or return an error indication if
+the mutex was not immediately available.
+Either way, <tt>mutex_trylock()</tt> returns immediately without sleeping.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%2011"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 11</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq12answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 12</b>:
+Why does line&nbsp;19 use <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>?
+After all, <tt>call_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;25 stores into the
+structure, which would interact badly with concurrent insertions.
+Doesn't this mean that <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> is required?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+Presumably the <tt>-&gt;gp_lock</tt> acquired on line&nbsp;18 excludes
+any changes, including any insertions that <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>
+would protect against.
+Therefore, any insertions will be delayed until after <tt>-&gt;gp_lock</tt>
+is released on line&nbsp;25, which in turn means that
+<tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> suffices.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%2012"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 12</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq13answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 13</b>:
+Earlier it was claimed that <tt>call_rcu()</tt> and
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> allowed updaters to avoid being blocked
+by readers.
+But how can that be correct, given that the invocation of the callback
+and the freeing of the memory (respectively) must still wait for
+a grace period to elapse?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+We could define things this way, but keep in mind that this sort of
+definition would say that updates in garbage-collected languages
+cannot complete until the next time the garbage collector runs,
+which does not seem at all reasonable.
+The key point is that in most cases, an updater using either
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> or <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> can proceed to the
+next update as soon as it has invoked <tt>call_rcu()</tt> or
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>, without having to wait for a subsequent
+grace period.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%2013"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 13</b>.</a>
+
+<a name="qq14answer"></a>
+<p><b>Quick Quiz 14</b>:
+So what happens with <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> during
+scheduler initialization for <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>
+kernels?
+
+
+</p><p><b>Answer</b>:
+In <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt> kernel, <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+maps directly to <tt>synchronize_sched()</tt>.
+Therefore, <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> works normally throughout
+boot in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt> kernels.
+However, your code must also work in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> kernels,
+so it is still necessary to avoid invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+during scheduler initialization.
+
+
+</p><p><a href="#Quick%20Quiz%2014"><b>Back to Quick Quiz 14</b>.</a>
+
+
+</body></html>
diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.htmlx b/Documentation/RCU/Design/Requirements/Requirements.htmlx
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+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN"
+ "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
+ <html>
+ <head><title>A Tour Through RCU's Requirements [LWN.net]</title>
+ <meta HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=utf-8">
+
+<h1>A Tour Through RCU's Requirements</h1>
+
+<p>Copyright IBM Corporation, 2015</p>
+<p>Author: Paul E.&nbsp;McKenney</p>
+<p><i>The initial version of this document appeared in the
+<a href="https://lwn.net/">LWN</a> articles
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/652156/">here</a>,
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/652677/">here</a>, and
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/653326/">here</a>.</i></p>
+
+<h2>Introduction</h2>
+
+<p>
+Read-copy update (RCU) is a synchronization mechanism that is often
+used as a replacement for reader-writer locking.
+RCU is unusual in that updaters do not block readers,
+which means that RCU's read-side primitives can be exceedingly fast
+and scalable.
+In addition, updaters can make useful forward progress concurrently
+with readers.
+However, all this concurrency between RCU readers and updaters does raise
+the question of exactly what RCU readers are doing, which in turn
+raises the question of exactly what RCU's requirements are.
+
+<p>
+This document therefore summarizes RCU's requirements, and can be thought
+of as an informal, high-level specification for RCU.
+It is important to understand that RCU's specification is primarily
+empirical in nature;
+in fact, I learned about many of these requirements the hard way.
+This situation might cause some consternation, however, not only
+has this learning process been a lot of fun, but it has also been
+a great privilege to work with so many people willing to apply
+technologies in interesting new ways.
+
+<p>
+All that aside, here are the categories of currently known RCU requirements:
+</p>
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Fundamental Requirements">
+ Fundamental Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Fundamental Non-Requirements">Fundamental Non-Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Parallelism Facts of Life">
+ Parallelism Facts of Life</a>
+<li> <a href="#Quality-of-Implementation Requirements">
+ Quality-of-Implementation Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Linux Kernel Complications">
+ Linux Kernel Complications</a>
+<li> <a href="#Software-Engineering Requirements">
+ Software-Engineering Requirements</a>
+<li> <a href="#Other RCU Flavors">
+ Other RCU Flavors</a>
+<li> <a href="#Possible Future Changes">
+ Possible Future Changes</a>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This is followed by a <a href="#Summary">summary</a>,
+which is in turn followed by the inevitable
+<a href="#Answers to Quick Quizzes">answers to the quick quizzes</a>.
+
+<h2><a name="Fundamental Requirements">Fundamental Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+RCU's fundamental requirements are the closest thing RCU has to hard
+mathematical requirements.
+These are:
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Grace-Period Guarantee">
+ Grace-Period Guarantee</a>
+<li> <a href="#Publish-Subscribe Guarantee">
+ Publish-Subscribe Guarantee</a>
+<li> <a href="#Memory-Barrier Guarantees">
+ Memory-Barrier Guarantees</a>
+<li> <a href="#RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally">
+ RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally</a>
+<li> <a href="#Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade">
+ Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade</a>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a name="Grace-Period Guarantee">Grace-Period Guarantee</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU's grace-period guarantee is unusual in being premeditated:
+Jack Slingwine and I had this guarantee firmly in mind when we started
+work on RCU (then called &ldquo;rclock&rdquo;) in the early 1990s.
+That said, the past two decades of experience with RCU have produced
+a much more detailed understanding of this guarantee.
+
+<p>
+RCU's grace-period guarantee allows updaters to wait for the completion
+of all pre-existing RCU read-side critical sections.
+An RCU read-side critical section
+begins with the marker <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and ends with
+the marker <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+These markers may be nested, and RCU treats a nested set as one
+big RCU read-side critical section.
+Production-quality implementations of <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> are extremely lightweight, and in
+fact have exactly zero overhead in Linux kernels built for production
+use with <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>.
+
+<p>
+This guarantee allows ordering to be enforced with extremely low
+overhead to readers, for example:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 int x, y;
+ 2
+ 3 void thread0(void)
+ 4 {
+ 5 rcu_read_lock();
+ 6 r1 = READ_ONCE(x);
+ 7 r2 = READ_ONCE(y);
+ 8 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 9 }
+10
+11 void thread1(void)
+12 {
+13 WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+14 synchronize_rcu();
+15 WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Because the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;14 waits for
+all pre-existing readers, any instance of <tt>thread0()</tt> that
+loads a value of zero from <tt>x</tt> must complete before
+<tt>thread1()</tt> stores to <tt>y</tt>, so that instance must
+also load a value of zero from <tt>y</tt>.
+Similarly, any instance of <tt>thread0()</tt> that loads a value of
+one from <tt>y</tt> must have started after the
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> started, and must therefore also load
+a value of one from <tt>x</tt>.
+Therefore, the outcome:
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 0 &amp;&amp; r2 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+cannot happen.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Wait a minute!
+You said that updaters can make useful forward progress concurrently
+with readers, but pre-existing readers will block
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>!!!
+Just who are you trying to fool???
+<p>@@QQA@@
+First, if updaters do not wish to be blocked by readers, they can use
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> or <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>, which will
+be discussed later.
+Second, even when using <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, the other
+update-side code does run concurrently with readers, whether pre-existing
+or not.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+This scenario resembles one of the first uses of RCU in
+<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DYNIX">DYNIX/ptx</a>,
+which managed a distributed lock manager's transition into
+a state suitable for handling recovery from node failure,
+more or less as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 #define STATE_NORMAL 0
+ 2 #define STATE_WANT_RECOVERY 1
+ 3 #define STATE_RECOVERING 2
+ 4 #define STATE_WANT_NORMAL 3
+ 5
+ 6 int state = STATE_NORMAL;
+ 7
+ 8 void do_something_dlm(void)
+ 9 {
+10 int state_snap;
+11
+12 rcu_read_lock();
+13 state_snap = READ_ONCE(state);
+14 if (state_snap == STATE_NORMAL)
+15 do_something();
+16 else
+17 do_something_carefully();
+18 rcu_read_unlock();
+19 }
+20
+21 void start_recovery(void)
+22 {
+23 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_WANT_RECOVERY);
+24 synchronize_rcu();
+25 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_RECOVERING);
+26 recovery();
+27 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_WANT_NORMAL);
+28 synchronize_rcu();
+29 WRITE_ONCE(state, STATE_NORMAL);
+30 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The RCU read-side critical section in <tt>do_something_dlm()</tt>
+works with the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> in <tt>start_recovery()</tt>
+to guarantee that <tt>do_something()</tt> never runs concurrently
+with <tt>recovery()</tt>, but with little or no synchronization
+overhead in <tt>do_something_dlm()</tt>.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Why is the <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;28 needed?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+Without that extra grace period, memory reordering could result in
+<tt>do_something_dlm()</tt> executing <tt>do_something()</tt>
+concurrently with the last bits of <tt>recovery()</tt>.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+In order to avoid fatal problems such as deadlocks,
+an RCU read-side critical section must not contain calls to
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+Similarly, an RCU read-side critical section must not
+contain anything that waits, directly or indirectly, on completion of
+an invocation of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Although RCU's grace-period guarantee is useful in and of itself, with
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/573497/">quite a few use cases</a>,
+it would be good to be able to use RCU to coordinate read-side
+access to linked data structures.
+For this, the grace-period guarantee is not sufficient, as can
+be seen in function <tt>add_gp_buggy()</tt> below.
+We will look at the reader's code later, but in the meantime, just think of
+the reader as locklessly picking up the <tt>gp</tt> pointer,
+and, if the value loaded is non-<tt>NULL</tt>, locklessly accessing the
+<tt>-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>-&gt;b</tt> fields.
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool add_gp_buggy(int a, int b)
+ 2 {
+ 3 p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
+ 4 if (!p)
+ 5 return -ENOMEM;
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 if (rcu_access_pointer(gp)) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+11 p-&gt;a = a;
+12 p-&gt;b = a;
+13 gp = p; /* ORDERING BUG */
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The problem is that both the compiler and weakly ordered CPUs are within
+their rights to reorder this code as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool add_gp_buggy_optimized(int a, int b)
+ 2 {
+ 3 p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
+ 4 if (!p)
+ 5 return -ENOMEM;
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 if (rcu_access_pointer(gp)) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+<b>11 gp = p; /* ORDERING BUG */
+12 p-&gt;a = a;
+13 p-&gt;b = a;</b>
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+If an RCU reader fetches <tt>gp</tt> just after
+<tt>add_gp_buggy_optimized</tt> executes line&nbsp;11,
+it will see garbage in the <tt>-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>-&gt;b</tt>
+fields.
+And this is but one of many ways in which compiler and hardware optimizations
+could cause trouble.
+Therefore, we clearly need some way to prevent the compiler and the CPU from
+reordering in this manner, which brings us to the publish-subscribe
+guarantee discussed in the next section.
+
+<h3><a name="Publish-Subscribe Guarantee">Publish/Subscribe Guarantee</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU's publish-subscribe guarantee allows data to be inserted
+into a linked data structure without disrupting RCU readers.
+The updater uses <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> to insert the
+new data, and readers use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> to
+access data, whether new or old.
+The following shows an example of insertion:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool add_gp(int a, int b)
+ 2 {
+ 3 p = kmalloc(sizeof(*p), GFP_KERNEL);
+ 4 if (!p)
+ 5 return -ENOMEM;
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 if (rcu_access_pointer(gp)) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+11 p-&gt;a = a;
+12 p-&gt;b = a;
+13 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, p);
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> on line&nbsp;13 is conceptually
+equivalent to a simple assignment statement, but also guarantees
+that its assignment will
+happen after the two assignments in lines&nbsp;11 and&nbsp;12,
+similar to the C11 <tt>memory_order_release</tt> store operation.
+It also prevents any number of &ldquo;interesting&rdquo; compiler
+optimizations, for example, the use of <tt>gp</tt> as a scratch
+location immediately preceding the assignment.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+But <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> does nothing to prevent the
+two assignments to <tt>p-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>p-&gt;b</tt>
+from being reordered.
+Can't that also cause problems?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+No, it cannot.
+The readers cannot see either of these two fields until
+the assignment to <tt>gp</tt>, by which time both fields are
+fully initialized.
+So reordering the assignments
+to <tt>p-&gt;a</tt> and <tt>p-&gt;b</tt> cannot possibly
+cause any problems.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+It is tempting to assume that the reader need not do anything special
+to control its accesses to the RCU-protected data,
+as shown in <tt>do_something_gp_buggy()</tt> below:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool do_something_gp_buggy(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 p = gp; /* OPTIMIZATIONS GALORE!!! */
+ 5 if (p) {
+ 6 do_something(p-&gt;a, p-&gt;b);
+ 7 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 8 return true;
+ 9 }
+10 rcu_read_unlock();
+11 return false;
+12 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+However, this temptation must be resisted because there are a
+surprisingly large number of ways that the compiler
+(to say nothing of
+<a href="https://h71000.www7.hp.com/wizard/wiz_2637.html">DEC Alpha CPUs</a>)
+can trip this code up.
+For but one example, if the compiler were short of registers, it
+might choose to refetch from <tt>gp</tt> rather than keeping
+a separate copy in <tt>p</tt> as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool do_something_gp_buggy_optimized(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 if (gp) { /* OPTIMIZATIONS GALORE!!! */
+<b> 5 do_something(gp-&gt;a, gp-&gt;b);</b>
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 return true;
+ 8 }
+ 9 rcu_read_unlock();
+10 return false;
+11 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+If this function ran concurrently with a series of updates that
+replaced the current structure with a new one,
+the fetches of <tt>gp-&gt;a</tt>
+and <tt>gp-&gt;b</tt> might well come from two different structures,
+which could cause serious confusion.
+To prevent this (and much else besides), <tt>do_something_gp()</tt> uses
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> to fetch from <tt>gp</tt>:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool do_something_gp(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 p = rcu_dereference(gp);
+ 5 if (p) {
+ 6 do_something(p-&gt;a, p-&gt;b);
+ 7 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 8 return true;
+ 9 }
+10 rcu_read_unlock();
+11 return false;
+12 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+The <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> uses volatile casts and (for DEC Alpha)
+memory barriers in the Linux kernel.
+Should a
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/RCU/consume.2015.07.13a.pdf">high-quality implementation of C11 <tt>memory_order_consume</tt> [PDF]</a>
+ever appear, then <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> could be implemented
+as a <tt>memory_order_consume</tt> load.
+Regardless of the exact implementation, a pointer fetched by
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> may not be used outside of the
+outermost RCU read-side critical section containing that
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, unless protection of
+the corresponding data element has been passed from RCU to some
+other synchronization mechanism, most commonly locking or
+<a href="https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/RCU/rcuref.txt">reference counting</a>.
+
+<p>
+In short, updaters use <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> and readers
+use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, and these two RCU API elements
+work together to ensure that readers have a consistent view of
+newly added data elements.
+
+<p>
+Of course, it is also necessary to remove elements from RCU-protected
+data structures, for example, using the following process:
+
+<ol>
+<li> Remove the data element from the enclosing structure.
+<li> Wait for all pre-existing RCU read-side critical sections
+ to complete (because only pre-existing readers can possibly have
+ a reference to the newly removed data element).
+<li> At this point, only the updater has a reference to the
+ newly removed data element, so it can safely reclaim
+ the data element, for example, by passing it to <tt>kfree()</tt>.
+</ol>
+
+This process is implemented by <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool remove_gp_synchronous(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 struct foo *p;
+ 4
+ 5 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 6 p = rcu_access_pointer(gp);
+ 7 if (!p) {
+ 8 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 9 return false;
+10 }
+11 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+12 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+13 synchronize_rcu();
+14 kfree(p);
+15 return true;
+16 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+This function is straightforward, with line&nbsp;13 waiting for a grace
+period before line&nbsp;14 frees the old data element.
+This waiting ensures that readers will reach line&nbsp;7 of
+<tt>do_something_gp()</tt> before the data element referenced by
+<tt>p</tt> is freed.
+The <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> on line&nbsp;6 is similar to
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, except that:
+
+<ol>
+<li> The value returned by <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>
+ cannot be dereferenced.
+ If you want to access the value pointed to as well as
+ the pointer itself, use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>
+ instead of <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>.
+<li> The call to <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> need not be
+ protected.
+ In contrast, <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> must either be
+ within an RCU read-side critical section or in a code
+ segment where the pointer cannot change, for example, in
+ code protected by the corresponding update-side lock.
+</ol>
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Without the <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> or the
+<tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>, what destructive optimizations
+might the compiler make use of?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+Let's start with what happens to <tt>do_something_gp()</tt>
+if it fails to use <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+It could reuse a value formerly fetched from this same pointer.
+It could also fetch the pointer from <tt>gp</tt> in a byte-at-a-time
+manner, resulting in <i>load tearing</i>, in turn resulting a bytewise
+mash-up of two distince pointer values.
+It might even use value-speculation optimizations, where it makes a wrong
+guess, but by the time it gets around to checking the value, an update
+has changed the pointer to match the wrong guess.
+Too bad about any dereferences that returned pre-initialization garbage
+in the meantime!
+
+<p>
+For <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>, as long as all modifications
+to <tt>gp</tt> are carried out while holding <tt>gp_lock</tt>,
+the above optimizations are harmless.
+However,
+with <tt>CONFIG_SPARSE_RCU_POINTER=y</tt>,
+<tt>sparse</tt> will complain if you
+define <tt>gp</tt> with <tt>__rcu</tt> and then
+access it without using
+either <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> or <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+In short, RCU's publish-subscribe guarantee is provided by the combination
+of <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> and <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+This guarantee allows data elements to be safely added to RCU-protected
+linked data structures without disrupting RCU readers.
+This guarantee can be used in combination with the grace-period
+guarantee to also allow data elements to be removed from RCU-protected
+linked data structures, again without disrupting RCU readers.
+
+<p>
+This guarantee was only partially premeditated.
+DYNIX/ptx used an explicit memory barrier for publication, but had nothing
+resembling <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> for subscription, nor did it
+have anything resembling the <tt>smp_read_barrier_depends()</tt>
+that was later subsumed into <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>.
+The need for these operations made itself known quite suddenly at a
+late-1990s meeting with the DEC Alpha architects, back in the days when
+DEC was still a free-standing company.
+It took the Alpha architects a good hour to convince me that any sort
+of barrier would ever be needed, and it then took me a good <i>two</i> hours
+to convince them that their documentation did not make this point clear.
+More recent work with the C and C++ standards committees have provided
+much education on tricks and traps from the compiler.
+In short, compilers were much less tricky in the early 1990s, but in
+2015, don't even think about omitting <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>!
+
+<h3><a name="Memory-Barrier Guarantees">Memory-Barrier Guarantees</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The previous section's simple linked-data-structure scenario clearly
+demonstrates the need for RCU's stringent memory-ordering guarantees on
+systems with more than one CPU:
+
+<ol>
+<li> Each CPU that has an RCU read-side critical section that
+ begins before <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> starts is
+ guaranteed to execute a full memory barrier between the time
+ that the RCU read-side critical section ends and the time that
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns.
+ Without this guarantee, a pre-existing RCU read-side critical section
+ might hold a reference to the newly removed <tt>struct foo</tt>
+ after the <tt>kfree()</tt> on line&nbsp;14 of
+ <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>.
+<li> Each CPU that has an RCU read-side critical section that ends
+ after <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns is guaranteed
+ to execute a full memory barrier between the time that
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> begins and the time that the RCU
+ read-side critical section begins.
+ Without this guarantee, a later RCU read-side critical section
+ running after the <tt>kfree()</tt> on line&nbsp;14 of
+ <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt> might
+ later run <tt>do_something_gp()</tt> and find the
+ newly deleted <tt>struct foo</tt>.
+<li> If the task invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> remains
+ on a given CPU, then that CPU is guaranteed to execute a full
+ memory barrier sometime during the execution of
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+ This guarantee ensures that the <tt>kfree()</tt> on
+ line&nbsp;14 of <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt> really does
+ execute after the removal on line&nbsp;11.
+<li> If the task invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> migrates
+ among a group of CPUs during that invocation, then each of the
+ CPUs in that group is guaranteed to execute a full memory barrier
+ sometime during the execution of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+ This guarantee also ensures that the <tt>kfree()</tt> on
+ line&nbsp;14 of <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt> really does
+ execute after the removal on
+ line&nbsp;11, but also in the case where the thread executing the
+ <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> migrates in the meantime.
+</ol>
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Given that multiple CPUs can start RCU read-side critical sections
+at any time without any ordering whatsoever, how can RCU possibly tell whether
+or not a given RCU read-side critical section starts before a
+given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+If RCU cannot tell whether or not a given
+RCU read-side critical section starts before a
+given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>,
+then it must assume that the RCU read-side critical section
+started first.
+In other words, a given instance of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+can avoid waiting on a given RCU read-side critical section only
+if it can prove that <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> started first.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+The first and second guarantees require unbelievably strict ordering!
+Are all these memory barriers <i> really</i> required?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+Yes, they really are required.
+To see why the first guarantee is required, consider the following
+sequence of events:
+
+<ol>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>q = rcu_dereference(gp);
+ /* Very likely to return p. */</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>list_del_rcu(p);</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> starts.
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>do_something_with(q-&gt;a);
+ /* No smp_mb(), so might happen after kfree(). */</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns.
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>kfree(p);</tt>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+Therefore, there absolutely must be a full memory barrier between the
+end of the RCU read-side critical section and the end of the
+grace period.
+
+<p>
+The sequence of events demonstrating the necessity of the second rule
+is roughly similar:
+
+<ol>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>list_del_rcu(p);</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> starts.
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>q = rcu_dereference(gp);
+ /* Might return p if no memory barrier. */</tt>
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> returns.
+<li> CPU 0: <tt>kfree(p);</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>do_something_with(q-&gt;a); /* Boom!!! */</tt>
+<li> CPU 1: <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+And similarly, without a memory barrier between the beginning of the
+grace period and the beginning of the RCU read-side critical section,
+CPU&nbsp;1 might end up accessing the freelist.
+
+<p>
+The &ldquo;as if&rdquo; rule of course applies, so that any implementation
+that acts as if the appropriate memory barriers were in place is a
+correct implementation.
+That said, it is much easier to fool yourself into believing that you have
+adhered to the as-if rule than it is to actually adhere to it!
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+Note that these memory-barrier requirements do not replace the fundamental
+RCU requirement that a grace period wait for all pre-existing readers.
+On the contrary, the memory barriers called out in this section must operate in
+such a way as to <i>enforce</i> this fundamental requirement.
+Of course, different implementations enforce this requirement in different
+ways, but enforce it they must.
+
+<h3><a name="RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally">RCU Primitives Guaranteed to Execute Unconditionally</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The common-case RCU primitives are unconditional.
+They are invoked, they do their job, and they return, with no possibility
+of error, and no need to retry.
+This is a key RCU design philosophy.
+
+<p>
+However, this philosophy is pragmatic rather than pigheaded.
+If someone comes up with a good justification for a particular conditional
+RCU primitive, it might well be implemented and added.
+After all, this guarantee was reverse-engineered, not premeditated.
+The unconditional nature of the RCU primitives was initially an
+accident of implementation, and later experience with synchronization
+primitives with conditional primitives caused me to elevate this
+accident to a guarantee.
+Therefore, the justification for adding a conditional primitive to
+RCU would need to be based on detailed and compelling use cases.
+
+<h3><a name="Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade">Guaranteed Read-to-Write Upgrade</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+As far as RCU is concerned, it is always possible to carry out an
+update within an RCU read-side critical section.
+For example, that RCU read-side critical section might search for
+a given data element, and then might acquire the update-side
+spinlock in order to update that element, all while remaining
+in that RCU read-side critical section.
+Of course, it is necessary to exit the RCU read-side critical section
+before invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, however, this
+inconvenience can be avoided through use of the
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> and <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> API members
+described later in this document.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+But how does the upgrade-to-write operation exclude other readers?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+It doesn't, just like normal RCU updates, which also do not exclude
+RCU readers.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+This guarantee allows lookup code to be shared between read-side
+and update-side code, and was premeditated, appearing in the earliest
+DYNIX/ptx RCU documentation.
+
+<h2><a name="Fundamental Non-Requirements">Fundamental Non-Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+RCU provides extremely lightweight readers, and its read-side guarantees,
+though quite useful, are correspondingly lightweight.
+It is therefore all too easy to assume that RCU is guaranteeing more
+than it really is.
+Of course, the list of things that RCU does not guarantee is infinitely
+long, however, the following sections list a few non-guarantees that
+have caused confusion.
+Except where otherwise noted, these non-guarantees were premeditated.
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Readers Impose Minimal Ordering">
+ Readers Impose Minimal Ordering</a>
+<li> <a href="#Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters">
+ Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters</a>
+<li> <a href="#Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers">
+ Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers</a>
+<li> <a href="#Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections">
+ Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections</a>
+<li> <a href="#Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods">
+ Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods</a>
+<li> <a href="#Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods">
+ Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods</a>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a name="Readers Impose Minimal Ordering">Readers Impose Minimal Ordering</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Reader-side markers such as <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> provide absolutely no ordering guarantees
+except through their interaction with the grace-period APIs such as
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+To see this, consider the following pair of threads:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+ 5 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 6 rcu_read_lock();
+ 7 WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+ 8 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 9 }
+10
+11 void thread1(void)
+12 {
+13 rcu_read_lock();
+14 r1 = READ_ONCE(y);
+15 rcu_read_unlock();
+16 rcu_read_lock();
+17 r2 = READ_ONCE(x);
+18 rcu_read_unlock();
+19 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+After <tt>thread0()</tt> and <tt>thread1()</tt> execute
+concurrently, it is quite possible to have
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 0)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+(that is, <tt>y</tt> appears to have been assigned before <tt>x</tt>),
+which would not be possible if <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> had much in the way of ordering
+properties.
+But they do not, so the CPU is within its rights
+to do significant reordering.
+This is by design: Any significant ordering constraints would slow down
+these fast-path APIs.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Can't the compiler also reorder this code?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+No, the volatile casts in <tt>READ_ONCE()</tt> and
+<tt>WRITE_ONCE()</tt> prevent the compiler from reordering in
+this particular case.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<h3><a name="Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters">Readers Do Not Exclude Updaters</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Neither <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> nor <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+exclude updates.
+All they do is to prevent grace periods from ending.
+The following example illustrates this:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 r1 = READ_ONCE(y);
+ 5 if (r1) {
+ 6 do_something_with_nonzero_x();
+ 7 r2 = READ_ONCE(x);
+ 8 WARN_ON(!r2); /* BUG!!! */
+ 9 }
+10 rcu_read_unlock();
+11 }
+12
+13 void thread1(void)
+14 {
+15 spin_lock(&amp;my_lock);
+16 WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+17 WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+18 spin_unlock(&amp;my_lock);
+19 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+If the <tt>thread0()</tt> function's <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+excluded the <tt>thread1()</tt> function's update,
+the <tt>WARN_ON()</tt> could never fire.
+But the fact is that <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> does not exclude
+much of anything aside from subsequent grace periods, of which
+<tt>thread1()</tt> has none, so the
+<tt>WARN_ON()</tt> can and does fire.
+
+<h3><a name="Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers">Updaters Only Wait For Old Readers</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It might be tempting to assume that after <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+completes, there are no readers executing.
+This temptation must be avoided because
+new readers can start immediately after <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+starts, and <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> is under no
+obligation to wait for these new readers.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Suppose that synchronize_rcu() did wait until all readers had completed.
+Would the updater be able to rely on this?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+No.
+Even if <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> were to wait until
+all readers had completed, a new reader might start immediately after
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> completed.
+Therefore, the code following
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> cannot rely on there being no readers
+in any case.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<h3><a name="Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections">
+Grace Periods Don't Partition Read-Side Critical Sections</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It is tempting to assume that if any part of one RCU read-side critical
+section precedes a given grace period, and if any part of another RCU
+read-side critical section follows that same grace period, then all of
+the first RCU read-side critical section must precede all of the second.
+However, this just isn't the case: A single grace period does not
+partition the set of RCU read-side critical sections.
+An example of this situation can be illustrated as follows, where
+<tt>x</tt>, <tt>y</tt>, and <tt>z</tt> are initially all zero:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(a, 1);
+ 5 WRITE_ONCE(b, 1);
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 }
+ 8
+ 9 void thread1(void)
+10 {
+11 r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
+12 synchronize_rcu();
+13 WRITE_ONCE(c, 1);
+14 }
+15
+16 void thread2(void)
+17 {
+18 rcu_read_lock();
+19 r2 = READ_ONCE(b);
+20 r3 = READ_ONCE(c);
+21 rcu_read_unlock();
+22 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+It turns out that the outcome:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 0 &amp;&amp; r3 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+is entirely possible.
+The following figure show how this can happen, with each circled
+<tt>QS</tt> indicating the point at which RCU recorded a
+<i>quiescent state</i> for each thread, that is, a state in which
+RCU knows that the thread cannot be in the midst of an RCU read-side
+critical section that started before the current grace period:
+
+<p><img src="GPpartitionReaders1.svg" alt="GPpartitionReaders1.svg" width="60%"></p>
+
+<p>
+If it is necessary to partition RCU read-side critical sections in this
+manner, it is necessary to use two grace periods, where the first
+grace period is known to end before the second grace period starts:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(a, 1);
+ 5 WRITE_ONCE(b, 1);
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 }
+ 8
+ 9 void thread1(void)
+10 {
+11 r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
+12 synchronize_rcu();
+13 WRITE_ONCE(c, 1);
+14 }
+15
+16 void thread2(void)
+17 {
+18 r2 = READ_ONCE(c);
+19 synchronize_rcu();
+20 WRITE_ONCE(d, 1);
+21 }
+22
+23 void thread3(void)
+24 {
+25 rcu_read_lock();
+26 r3 = READ_ONCE(b);
+27 r4 = READ_ONCE(d);
+28 rcu_read_unlock();
+29 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Here, if <tt>(r1 == 1)</tt>, then
+<tt>thread0()</tt>'s write to <tt>b</tt> must happen
+before the end of <tt>thread1()</tt>'s grace period.
+If in addition <tt>(r4 == 1)</tt>, then
+<tt>thread3()</tt>'s read from <tt>b</tt> must happen
+after the beginning of <tt>thread2()</tt>'s grace period.
+If it is also the case that <tt>(r2 == 1)</tt>, then the
+end of <tt>thread1()</tt>'s grace period must precede the
+beginning of <tt>thread2()</tt>'s grace period.
+This mean that the two RCU read-side critical sections cannot overlap,
+guaranteeing that <tt>(r3 == 1)</tt>.
+As a result, the outcome:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 1 &amp;&amp; r3 == 0 &amp;&amp; r4 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+cannot happen.
+
+<p>
+This non-requirement was also non-premeditated, but became apparent
+when studying RCU's interaction with memory ordering.
+
+<h3><a name="Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods">
+Read-Side Critical Sections Don't Partition Grace Periods</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It is also tempting to assume that if an RCU read-side critical section
+happens between a pair of grace periods, then those grace periods cannot
+overlap.
+However, this temptation leads nowhere good, as can be illustrated by
+the following, with all variables initially zero:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 void thread0(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 rcu_read_lock();
+ 4 WRITE_ONCE(a, 1);
+ 5 WRITE_ONCE(b, 1);
+ 6 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 7 }
+ 8
+ 9 void thread1(void)
+10 {
+11 r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
+12 synchronize_rcu();
+13 WRITE_ONCE(c, 1);
+14 }
+15
+16 void thread2(void)
+17 {
+18 rcu_read_lock();
+19 WRITE_ONCE(d, 1);
+20 r2 = READ_ONCE(c);
+21 rcu_read_unlock();
+22 }
+23
+24 void thread3(void)
+25 {
+26 r3 = READ_ONCE(d);
+27 synchronize_rcu();
+28 WRITE_ONCE(e, 1);
+29 }
+30
+31 void thread4(void)
+32 {
+33 rcu_read_lock();
+34 r4 = READ_ONCE(b);
+35 r5 = READ_ONCE(e);
+36 rcu_read_unlock();
+37 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+In this case, the outcome:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+(r1 == 1 &amp;&amp; r2 == 1 &amp;&amp; r3 == 1 &amp;&amp; r4 == 0 &amp&amp; r5 == 1)
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+is entirely possible, as illustrated below:
+
+<p><img src="ReadersPartitionGP1.svg" alt="ReadersPartitionGP1.svg" width="100%"></p>
+
+<p>
+Again, an RCU read-side critical section can overlap almost all of a
+given grace period, just so long as it does not overlap the entire
+grace period.
+As a result, an RCU read-side critical section cannot partition a pair
+of RCU grace periods.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+How long a sequence of grace periods, each separated by an RCU read-side
+critical section, would be required to partition the RCU read-side
+critical sections at the beginning and end of the chain?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+In theory, an infinite number.
+In practice, an unknown number that is sensitive to both implementation
+details and timing considerations.
+Therefore, even in practice, RCU users must abide by the theoretical rather
+than the practical answer.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<h3><a name="Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods">
+Disabling Preemption Does Not Block Grace Periods</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+There was a time when disabling preemption on any given CPU would block
+subsequent grace periods.
+However, this was an accident of implementation and is not a requirement.
+And in the current Linux-kernel implementation, disabling preemption
+on a given CPU in fact does not block grace periods, as Oleg Nesterov
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20150614193825.GA19582@redhat.com">demonstrated</a>.
+
+<p>
+If you need a preempt-disable region to block grace periods, you need to add
+<tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>, for example
+as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 preempt_disable();
+ 2 rcu_read_lock();
+ 3 do_something();
+ 4 rcu_read_unlock();
+ 5 preempt_enable();
+ 6
+ 7 /* Spinlocks implicitly disable preemption. */
+ 8 spin_lock(&amp;mylock);
+ 9 rcu_read_lock();
+10 do_something();
+11 rcu_read_unlock();
+12 spin_unlock(&amp;mylock);
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+In theory, you could enter the RCU read-side critical section first,
+but it is more efficient to keep the entire RCU read-side critical
+section contained in the preempt-disable region as shown above.
+Of course, RCU read-side critical sections that extend outside of
+preempt-disable regions will work correctly, but such critical sections
+can be preempted, which forces <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> to do
+more work.
+And no, this is <i>not</i> an invitation to enclose all of your RCU
+read-side critical sections within preempt-disable regions, because
+doing so would degrade real-time response.
+
+<p>
+This non-requirement appeared with preemptible RCU.
+If you need a grace period that waits on non-preemptible code regions, use
+<a href="#Sched Flavor">RCU-sched</a>.
+
+<h2><a name="Parallelism Facts of Life">Parallelism Facts of Life</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+These parallelism facts of life are by no means specific to RCU, but
+the RCU implementation must abide by them.
+They therefore bear repeating:
+
+<ol>
+<li> Any CPU or task may be delayed at any time,
+ and any attempts to avoid these delays by disabling
+ preemption, interrupts, or whatever are completely futile.
+ This is most obvious in preemptible user-level
+ environments and in virtualized environments (where
+ a given guest OS's VCPUs can be preempted at any time by
+ the underlying hypervisor), but can also happen in bare-metal
+ environments due to ECC errors, NMIs, and other hardware
+ events.
+ Although a delay of more than about 20 seconds can result
+ in splats, the RCU implementation is obligated to use
+ algorithms that can tolerate extremely long delays, but where
+ &ldquo;extremely long&rdquo; is not long enough to allow
+ wrap-around when incrementing a 64-bit counter.
+<li> Both the compiler and the CPU can reorder memory accesses.
+ Where it matters, RCU must use compiler directives and
+ memory-barrier instructions to preserve ordering.
+<li> Conflicting writes to memory locations in any given cache line
+ will result in expensive cache misses.
+ Greater numbers of concurrent writes and more-frequent
+ concurrent writes will result in more dramatic slowdowns.
+ RCU is therefore obligated to use algorithms that have
+ sufficient locality to avoid significant performance and
+ scalability problems.
+<li> As a rough rule of thumb, only one CPU's worth of processing
+ may be carried out under the protection of any given exclusive
+ lock.
+ RCU must therefore use scalable locking designs.
+<li> Counters are finite, especially on 32-bit systems.
+ RCU's use of counters must therefore tolerate counter wrap,
+ or be designed such that counter wrap would take way more
+ time than a single system is likely to run.
+ An uptime of ten years is quite possible, a runtime
+ of a century much less so.
+ As an example of the latter, RCU's dyntick-idle nesting counter
+ allows 54 bits for interrupt nesting level (this counter
+ is 64 bits even on a 32-bit system).
+ Overflowing this counter requires 2<sup>54</sup>
+ half-interrupts on a given CPU without that CPU ever going idle.
+ If a half-interrupt happened every microsecond, it would take
+ 570 years of runtime to overflow this counter, which is currently
+ believed to be an acceptably long time.
+<li> Linux systems can have thousands of CPUs running a single
+ Linux kernel in a single shared-memory environment.
+ RCU must therefore pay close attention to high-end scalability.
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This last parallelism fact of life means that RCU must pay special
+attention to the preceding facts of life.
+The idea that Linux might scale to systems with thousands of CPUs would
+have been met with some skepticism in the 1990s, but these requirements
+would have otherwise have been unsurprising, even in the early 1990s.
+
+<h2><a name="Quality-of-Implementation Requirements">Quality-of-Implementation Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+These sections list quality-of-implementation requirements.
+Although an RCU implementation that ignores these requirements could
+still be used, it would likely be subject to limitations that would
+make it inappropriate for industrial-strength production use.
+Classes of quality-of-implementation requirements are as follows:
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Specialization">Specialization</a>
+<li> <a href="#Performance and Scalability">Performance and Scalability</a>
+<li> <a href="#Composability">Composability</a>
+<li> <a href="#Corner Cases">Corner Cases</a>
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+These classes is covered in the following sections.
+
+<h3><a name="Specialization">Specialization</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU is and always has been intended primarily for read-mostly situations, as
+illustrated by the following figure.
+This means that RCU's read-side primitives are optimized, often at the
+expense of its update-side primitives.
+
+<p><img src="RCUApplicability.svg" alt="RCUApplicability.svg" width="70%"></p>
+
+<p>
+This focus on read-mostly situations means that RCU must interoperate
+with other synchronization primitives.
+For example, the <tt>add_gp()</tt> and <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>
+examples discussed earlier use RCU to protect readers and locking to
+coordinate updaters.
+However, the need extends much farther, requiring that a variety of
+synchronization primitives be legal within RCU read-side critical sections,
+including spinlocks, sequence locks, atomic operations, reference
+counters, and memory barriers.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+What about sleeping locks?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+These are forbidden within Linux-kernel RCU read-side critical sections
+because it is not legal to place a quiescent state (in this case,
+voluntary context switch) within an RCU read-side critical section.
+However, sleeping locks may be used within userspace RCU read-side critical
+sections, and also within Linux-kernel sleepable RCU
+<a href="#Sleepable RCU">(SRCU)</a>
+read-side critical sections.
+In addition, the -rt patchset turns spinlocks into a sleeping locks so
+that the corresponding critical sections can be preempted, which
+also means that these sleeplockified spinlocks (but not other sleeping locks!)
+may be acquire within -rt-Linux-kernel RCU read-side critical sections.
+
+<p>
+Note that it <i>is</i> legal for a normal RCU read-side critical section
+to conditionally acquire a sleeping locks (as in <tt>mutex_trylock()</tt>),
+but only as long as it does not loop indefinitely attempting to
+conditionally acquire that sleeping locks.
+The key point is that things like <tt>mutex_trylock()</tt>
+either return with the mutex held, or return an error indication if
+the mutex was not immediately available.
+Either way, <tt>mutex_trylock()</tt> returns immediately without sleeping.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+It often comes as a surprise that many algorithms do not require a
+consistent view of data, but many can function in that mode,
+with network routing being the poster child.
+Internet routing algorithms take significant time to propagate
+updates, so that by the time an update arrives at a given system,
+that system has been sending network traffic the wrong way for
+a considerable length of time.
+Having a few threads continue to send traffic the wrong way for a
+few more milliseconds is clearly not a problem: In the worst case,
+TCP retransmissions will eventually get the data where it needs to go.
+In general, when tracking the state of the universe outside of the
+computer, some level of inconsistency must be tolerated due to
+speed-of-light delays if nothing else.
+
+<p>
+Furthermore, uncertainty about external state is inherent in many cases.
+For example, a pair of veternarians might use heartbeat to determine
+whether or not a given cat was alive.
+But how long should they wait after the last heartbeat to decide that
+the cat is in fact dead?
+Waiting less than 400 milliseconds makes no sense because this would
+mean that a relaxed cat would be considered to cycle between death
+and life more than 100 times per minute.
+Moreover, just as with human beings, a cat's heart might stop for
+some period of time, so the exact wait period is a judgment call.
+One of our pair of veternarians might wait 30 seconds before pronouncing
+the cat dead, while the other might insist on waiting a full minute.
+The two veternarians would then disagree on the state of the cat during
+the final 30 seconds of the minute following the last heartbeat, as
+fancifully illustrated below:
+
+<p><img src="2013-08-is-it-dead.png" alt="2013-08-is-it-dead.png" width="431"></p>
+
+<p>
+Interestingly enough, this same situation applies to hardware.
+When push comes to shove, how do we tell whether or not some
+external server has failed?
+We send messages to it periodically, and declare it failed if we
+don't receive a response within a given period of time.
+Policy decisions can usually tolerate short
+periods of inconsistency.
+The policy was decided some time ago, and is only now being put into
+effect, so a few milliseconds of delay is normally inconsequential.
+
+<p>
+However, there are algorithms that absolutely must see consistent data.
+For example, the translation between a user-level SystemV semaphore
+ID to the corresponding in-kernel data structure is protected by RCU,
+but it is absolutely forbidden to update a semaphore that has just been
+removed.
+In the Linux kernel, this need for consistency is accommodated by acquiring
+spinlocks located in the in-kernel data structure from within
+the RCU read-side critical section, and this is indicated by the
+green box in the figure above.
+Many other techniques may be used, and are in fact used within the
+Linux kernel.
+
+<p>
+In short, RCU is not required to maintain consistency, and other
+mechanisms may be used in concert with RCU when consistency is required.
+RCU's specialization allows it to do its job extremely well, and its
+ability to interoperate with other synchronization mechanisms allows
+the right mix of synchronization tools to be used for a given job.
+
+<h3><a name="Performance and Scalability">Performance and Scalability</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Energy efficiency is a critical component of performance today,
+and Linux-kernel RCU implementations must therefore avoid unnecessarily
+awakening idle CPUs.
+I cannot claim that this requirement was premeditated.
+In fact, I learned of it during a telephone conversation in which I
+was given &ldquo;frank and open&rdquo; feedback on the importance
+of energy efficiency in battery-powered systems and on specific
+energy-efficiency shortcomings of the Linux-kernel RCU implementation.
+In my experience, the battery-powered embedded community will consider
+any unnecessary wakeups to be extremely unfriendly acts.
+So much so that mere Linux-kernel-mailing-list posts are
+insufficient to vent their ire.
+
+<p>
+Memory consumption is not particularly important for in most
+situations, and has become decreasingly
+so as memory sizes have expanded and memory
+costs have plummeted.
+However, as I learned from Matt Mackall's
+<a href="http://elinux.org/Linux_Tiny-FAQ">bloatwatch</a>
+efforts, memory footprint is critically important on single-CPU systems with
+non-preemptible (<tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>) kernels, and thus
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20090113221724.GA15307@linux.vnet.ibm.com">tiny RCU</a>
+was born.
+Josh Triplett has since taken over the small-memory banner with his
+<a href="https://tiny.wiki.kernel.org/">Linux kernel tinification</a>
+project, which resulted in
+<a href="#Sleepable RCU">SRCU</a>
+becoming optional for those kernels not needing it.
+
+<p>
+The remaining performance requirements are, for the most part,
+unsurprising.
+For example, in keeping with RCU's read-side specialization,
+<tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> should have negligible overhead (for
+example, suppression of a few minor compiler optimizations).
+Similarly, in non-preemptible environments, <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> should have exactly zero overhead.
+
+<p>
+In preemptible environments, in the case where the RCU read-side
+critical section was not preempted (as will be the case for the
+highest-priority real-time process), <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> should have minimal overhead.
+In particular, they should not contain atomic read-modify-write
+operations, memory-barrier instructions, preemption disabling,
+interrupt disabling, or backwards branches.
+However, in the case where the RCU read-side critical section was preempted,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> may acquire spinlocks and disable interrupts.
+This is why it is better to nest an RCU read-side critical section
+within a preempt-disable region than vice versa, at least in cases
+where that critical section is short enough to avoid unduly degrading
+real-time latencies.
+
+<p>
+The <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> grace-period-wait primitive is
+optimized for throughput.
+It may therefore incur several milliseconds of latency in addition to
+the duration of the longest RCU read-side critical section.
+On the other hand, multiple concurrent invocations of
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> are required to use batching optimizations
+so that they can be satisfied by a single underlying grace-period-wait
+operation.
+For example, in the Linux kernel, it is not unusual for a single
+grace-period-wait operation to serve more than
+<a href="https://www.usenix.org/conference/2004-usenix-annual-technical-conference/making-rcu-safe-deep-sub-millisecond-response">1,000 separate invocations</a>
+of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, thus amortizing the per-invocation
+overhead down to nearly zero.
+However, the grace-period optimization is also required to avoid
+measurable degradation of real-time scheduling and interrupt latencies.
+
+<p>
+In some cases, the multi-millisecond <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+latencies are unacceptable.
+In these cases, <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> may be used
+instead, reducing the grace-period latency down to a few tens of
+microseconds on small systems, at least in cases where the RCU read-side
+critical sections are short.
+There are currently no special latency requirements for
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> on large systems, but,
+consistent with the empirical nature of the RCU specification,
+that is subject to change.
+However, there most definitely are scalability requirements:
+A storm of <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> invocations on 4096
+CPUs should at least make reasonable forward progress.
+In return for its shorter latencies, <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>
+is permitted to impose modest degradation of real-time latency
+on non-idle online CPUs.
+That said, it will likely be necessary to take further steps to reduce this
+degradation, hopefully to roughly that of a scheduling-clock interrupt.
+
+<p>
+There are a number of situations where even
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>'s reduced grace-period
+latency is unacceptable.
+In these situations, the asynchronous <tt>call_rcu()</tt> can be
+used in place of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 struct foo {
+ 2 int a;
+ 3 int b;
+ 4 struct rcu_head rh;
+ 5 };
+ 6
+ 7 static void remove_gp_cb(struct rcu_head *rhp)
+ 8 {
+ 9 struct foo *p = container_of(rhp, struct foo, rh);
+10
+11 kfree(p);
+12 }
+13
+14 bool remove_gp_asynchronous(void)
+15 {
+16 struct foo *p;
+17
+18 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+19 p = rcu_dereference(gp);
+20 if (!p) {
+21 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+22 return false;
+23 }
+24 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+25 call_rcu(&amp;p-&gt;rh, remove_gp_cb);
+26 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+27 return true;
+28 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+A definition of <tt>struct foo</tt> is finally needed, and appears
+on lines&nbsp;1-5.
+The function <tt>remove_gp_cb()</tt> is passed to <tt>call_rcu()</tt>
+on line&nbsp;25, and will be invoked after the end of a subsequent
+grace period.
+This gets the same effect as <tt>remove_gp_synchronous()</tt>,
+but without forcing the updater to wait for a grace period to elapse.
+The <tt>call_rcu()</tt> function may be used in a number of
+situations where neither <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> nor
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> would be legal,
+including within preempt-disable code, <tt>local_bh_disable()</tt> code,
+interrupt-disable code, and interrupt handlers.
+However, even <tt>call_rcu()</tt> is illegal within NMI handlers.
+The callback function (<tt>remove_gp_cb()</tt> in this case) will be
+executed within softirq (software interrupt) environment within the
+Linux kernel,
+either within a real softirq handler or under the protection
+of <tt>local_bh_disable()</tt>.
+In both the Linux kernel and in userspace, it is bad practice to
+write an RCU callback function that takes too long.
+Long-running operations should be relegated to separate threads or
+(in the Linux kernel) workqueues.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Why does line&nbsp;19 use <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>?
+After all, <tt>call_rcu()</tt> on line&nbsp;25 stores into the
+structure, which would interact badly with concurrent insertions.
+Doesn't this mean that <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> is required?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+Presumably the <tt>-&gt;gp_lock</tt> acquired on line&nbsp;18 excludes
+any changes, including any insertions that <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>
+would protect against.
+Therefore, any insertions will be delayed until after <tt>-&gt;gp_lock</tt>
+is released on line&nbsp;25, which in turn means that
+<tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt> suffices.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+However, all that <tt>remove_gp_cb()</tt> is doing is
+invoking <tt>kfree()</tt> on the data element.
+This is a common idiom, and is supported by <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>,
+which allows &ldquo;fire and forget&rdquo; operation as shown below:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 struct foo {
+ 2 int a;
+ 3 int b;
+ 4 struct rcu_head rh;
+ 5 };
+ 6
+ 7 bool remove_gp_faf(void)
+ 8 {
+ 9 struct foo *p;
+10
+11 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+12 p = rcu_dereference(gp);
+13 if (!p) {
+14 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+15 return false;
+16 }
+17 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+18 kfree_rcu(p, rh);
+19 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+20 return true;
+21 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+Note that <tt>remove_gp_faf()</tt> simply invokes
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> and proceeds, without any need to pay any
+further attention to the subsequent grace period and <tt>kfree()</tt>.
+It is permissible to invoke <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> from the same
+environments as for <tt>call_rcu()</tt>.
+Interestingly enough, DYNIX/ptx had the equivalents of
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> and <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>, but not
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+This was due to the fact that RCU was not heavily used within DYNIX/ptx,
+so the very few places that needed something like
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> simply open-coded it.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+Earlier it was claimed that <tt>call_rcu()</tt> and
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> allowed updaters to avoid being blocked
+by readers.
+But how can that be correct, given that the invocation of the callback
+and the freeing of the memory (respectively) must still wait for
+a grace period to elapse?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+We could define things this way, but keep in mind that this sort of
+definition would say that updates in garbage-collected languages
+cannot complete until the next time the garbage collector runs,
+which does not seem at all reasonable.
+The key point is that in most cases, an updater using either
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> or <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> can proceed to the
+next update as soon as it has invoked <tt>call_rcu()</tt> or
+<tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>, without having to wait for a subsequent
+grace period.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+But what if the updater must wait for the completion of code to be
+executed after the end of the grace period, but has other tasks
+that can be carried out in the meantime?
+The polling-style <tt>get_state_synchronize_rcu()</tt> and
+<tt>cond_synchronize_rcu()</tt> functions may be used for this
+purpose, as shown below:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 bool remove_gp_poll(void)
+ 2 {
+ 3 struct foo *p;
+ 4 unsigned long s;
+ 5
+ 6 spin_lock(&amp;gp_lock);
+ 7 p = rcu_access_pointer(gp);
+ 8 if (!p) {
+ 9 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+10 return false;
+11 }
+12 rcu_assign_pointer(gp, NULL);
+13 spin_unlock(&amp;gp_lock);
+14 s = get_state_synchronize_rcu();
+15 do_something_while_waiting();
+16 cond_synchronize_rcu(s);
+17 kfree(p);
+18 return true;
+19 }
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+On line&nbsp;14, <tt>get_state_synchronize_rcu()</tt> obtains a
+&ldquo;cookie&rdquo; from RCU,
+then line&nbsp;15 carries out other tasks,
+and finally, line&nbsp;16 returns immediately if a grace period has
+elapsed in the meantime, but otherwise waits as required.
+The need for <tt>get_state_synchronize_rcu</tt> and
+<tt>cond_synchronize_rcu()</tt> has appeared quite recently,
+so it is too early to tell whether they will stand the test of time.
+
+<p>
+RCU thus provides a range of tools to allow updaters to strike the
+required tradeoff between latency, flexibility and CPU overhead.
+
+<h3><a name="Composability">Composability</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Composability has received much attention in recent years, perhaps in part
+due to the collision of multicore hardware with object-oriented techniques
+designed in single-threaded environments for single-threaded use.
+And in theory, RCU read-side critical sections may be composed, and in
+fact may be nested arbitrarily deeply.
+In practice, as with all real-world implementations of composable
+constructs, there are limitations.
+
+<p>
+Implementations of RCU for which <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> generate no code, such as
+Linux-kernel RCU when <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>, can be
+nested arbitrarily deeply.
+After all, there is no overhead.
+Except that if all these instances of <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> are visible to the compiler,
+compilation will eventually fail due to exhausting memory,
+mass storage, or user patience, whichever comes first.
+If the nesting is not visible to the compiler, as is the case with
+mutually recursive functions each in its own translation unit,
+stack overflow will result.
+If the nesting takes the form of loops, either the control variable
+will overflow or (in the Linux kernel) you will get an RCU CPU stall warning.
+Nevertheless, this class of RCU implementations is one
+of the most composable constructs in existence.
+
+<p>
+RCU implementations that explicitly track nesting depth
+are limited by the nesting-depth counter.
+For example, the Linux kernel's preemptible RCU limits nesting to
+<tt>INT_MAX</tt>.
+This should suffice for almost all practical purposes.
+That said, a consecutive pair of RCU read-side critical sections
+between which there is an operation that waits for a grace period
+cannot be enclosed in another RCU read-side critical section.
+This is because it is not legal to wait for a grace period within
+an RCU read-side critical section: To do so would result either
+in deadlock or
+in RCU implicitly splitting the enclosing RCU read-side critical
+section, neither of which is conducive to a long-lived and prosperous
+kernel.
+
+<p>
+It is worth noting that RCU is not alone in limiting composability.
+For example, many transactional-memory implementations prohibit
+composing a pair of transactions separated by an irrevocable
+operation (for example, a network receive operation).
+For another example, lock-based critical sections can be composed
+surprisingly freely, but only if deadlock is avoided.
+
+<p>
+In short, although RCU read-side critical sections are highly composable,
+care is required in some situations, just as is the case for any other
+composable synchronization mechanism.
+
+<h3><a name="Corner Cases">Corner Cases</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+A given RCU workload might have an endless and intense stream of
+RCU read-side critical sections, perhaps even so intense that there
+was never a point in time during which there was not at least one
+RCU read-side critical section in flight.
+RCU cannot allow this situation to block grace periods: As long as
+all the RCU read-side critical sections are finite, grace periods
+must also be finite.
+
+<p>
+That said, preemptible RCU implementations could potentially result
+in RCU read-side critical sections being preempted for long durations,
+which has the effect of creating a long-duration RCU read-side
+critical section.
+This situation can arise only in heavily loaded systems, but systems using
+real-time priorities are of course more vulnerable.
+Therefore, RCU priority boosting is provided to help deal with this
+case.
+That said, the exact requirements on RCU priority boosting will likely
+evolve as more experience accumulates.
+
+<p>
+Other workloads might have very high update rates.
+Although one can argue that such workloads should instead use
+something other than RCU, the fact remains that RCU must
+handle such workloads gracefully.
+This requirement is another factor driving batching of grace periods,
+but it is also the driving force behind the checks for large numbers
+of queued RCU callbacks in the <tt>call_rcu()</tt> code path.
+Finally, high update rates should not delay RCU read-side critical
+sections, although some read-side delays can occur when using
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>, courtesy of this function's use
+of <tt>try_stop_cpus()</tt>.
+(In the future, <tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> will be
+converted to use lighter-weight inter-processor interrupts (IPIs),
+but this will still disturb readers, though to a much smaller degree.)
+
+<p>
+Although all three of these corner cases were understood in the early
+1990s, a simple user-level test consisting of <tt>close(open(path))</tt>
+in a tight loop
+in the early 2000s suddenly provided a much deeper appreciation of the
+high-update-rate corner case.
+This test also motivated addition of some RCU code to react to high update
+rates, for example, if a given CPU finds itself with more than 10,000
+RCU callbacks queued, it will cause RCU to take evasive action by
+more aggressively starting grace periods and more aggressively forcing
+completion of grace-period processing.
+This evasive action causes the grace period to complete more quickly,
+but at the cost of restricting RCU's batching optimizations, thus
+increasing the CPU overhead incurred by that grace period.
+
+<h2><a name="Software-Engineering Requirements">
+Software-Engineering Requirements</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Between Murphy's Law and &ldquo;To err is human&rdquo;, it is necessary to
+guard against mishaps and misuse:
+
+<ol>
+<li> It is all too easy to forget to use <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>
+ everywhere that it is needed, so kernels built with
+ <tt>CONFIG_PROVE_RCU=y</tt> will spat if
+ <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> is used outside of an
+ RCU read-side critical section.
+ Update-side code can use <tt>rcu_dereference_protected()</tt>,
+ which takes a
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/371986/">lockdep expression</a>
+ to indicate what is providing the protection.
+ If the indicated protection is not provided, a lockdep splat
+ is emitted.
+
+ <p>
+ Code shared between readers and updaters can use
+ <tt>rcu_dereference_check()</tt>, which also takes a
+ lockdep expression, and emits a lockdep splat if neither
+ <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> nor the indicated protection
+ is in place.
+ In addition, <tt>rcu_dereference_raw()</tt> is used in those
+ (hopefully rare) cases where the required protection cannot
+ be easily described.
+ Finally, <tt>rcu_read_lock_held()</tt> is provided to
+ allow a function to verify that it has been invoked within
+ an RCU read-side critical section.
+ I was made aware of this set of requirements shortly after Thomas
+ Gleixner audited a number of RCU uses.
+<li> A given function might wish to check for RCU-related preconditions
+ upon entry, before using any other RCU API.
+ The <tt>rcu_lockdep_assert()</tt> does this job,
+ asserting the expression in kernels having lockdep enabled
+ and doing nothing otherwise.
+<li> It is also easy to forget to use <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt>
+ and <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>, perhaps (incorrectly)
+ substituting a simple assignment.
+ To catch this sort of error, a given RCU-protected pointer may be
+ tagged with <tt>__rcu</tt>, after which running sparse
+ with <tt>CONFIG_SPARSE_RCU_POINTER=y</tt> will complain
+ about simple-assignment accesses to that pointer.
+ Arnd Bergmann made me aware of this requirement, and also
+ supplied the needed
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/376011/">patch series</a>.
+<li> Kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_DEBUG_OBJECTS_RCU_HEAD=y</tt>
+ will splat if a data element is passed to <tt>call_rcu()</tt>
+ twice in a row, without a grace period in between.
+ (This error is similar to a double free.)
+ The corresponding <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures that are
+ dynamically allocated are automatically tracked, but
+ <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures allocated on the stack
+ must be initialized with <tt>init_rcu_head_on_stack()</tt>
+ and cleaned up with <tt>destroy_rcu_head_on_stack()</tt>.
+ Similarly, statically allocated non-stack <tt>rcu_head</tt>
+ structures must be initialized with <tt>init_rcu_head()</tt>
+ and cleaned up with <tt>destroy_rcu_head()</tt>.
+ Mathieu Desnoyers made me aware of this requirement, and also
+ supplied the needed
+ <a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20100319013024.GA28456@Krystal">patch</a>.
+<li> An infinite loop in an RCU read-side critical section will
+ eventually trigger an RCU CPU stall warning splat, with
+ the duration of &ldquo;eventually&rdquo; being controlled by the
+ <tt>RCU_CPU_STALL_TIMEOUT</tt> <tt>Kconfig</tt> option, or,
+ alternatively, by the
+ <tt>rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_timeout</tt> boot/sysfs
+ parameter.
+ However, RCU is not obligated to produce this splat
+ unless there is a grace period waiting on that particular
+ RCU read-side critical section.
+ <p>
+ Some extreme workloads might intentionally delay
+ RCU grace periods, and systems running those workloads can
+ be booted with <tt>rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_suppress</tt>
+ to suppress the splats.
+ This kernel parameter may also be set via <tt>sysfs</tt>.
+ Furthermore, RCU CPU stall warnings are counter-productive
+ during sysrq dumps and during panics.
+ RCU therefore supplies the <tt>rcu_sysrq_start()</tt> and
+ <tt>rcu_sysrq_end()</tt> API members to be called before
+ and after long sysrq dumps.
+ RCU also supplies the <tt>rcu_panic()</tt> notifier that is
+ automatically invoked at the beginning of a panic to suppress
+ further RCU CPU stall warnings.
+
+ <p>
+ This requirement made itself known in the early 1990s, pretty
+ much the first time that it was necessary to debug a CPU stall.
+ That said, the initial implementation in DYNIX/ptx was quite
+ generic in comparison with that of Linux.
+<li> Although it would be very good to detect pointers leaking out
+ of RCU read-side critical sections, there is currently no
+ good way of doing this.
+ One complication is the need to distinguish between pointers
+ leaking and pointers that have been handed off from RCU to
+ some other synchronization mechanism, for example, reference
+ counting.
+<li> In kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_RCU_TRACE=y</tt>, RCU-related
+ information is provided via both debugfs and event tracing.
+<li> Open-coded use of <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt> and
+ <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt> to create typical linked
+ data structures can be surprisingly error-prone.
+ Therefore, RCU-protected
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU List APIs">linked lists</a>
+ and, more recently, RCU-protected
+ <a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/612100/">hash tables</a>
+ are available.
+ Many other special-purpose RCU-protected data structures are
+ available in the Linux kernel and the userspace RCU library.
+<li> Some linked structures are created at compile time, but still
+ require <tt>__rcu</tt> checking.
+ The <tt>RCU_POINTER_INITIALIZER()</tt> macro serves this
+ purpose.
+<li> It is not necessary to use <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt>
+ when creating linked structures that are to be published via
+ a single external pointer.
+ The <tt>RCU_INIT_POINTER()</tt> macro is provided for
+ this task and also for assigning <tt>NULL</tt> pointers
+ at runtime.
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This not a hard-and-fast list: RCU's diagnostic capabilities will
+continue to be guided by the number and type of usage bugs found
+in real-world RCU usage.
+
+<h2><a name="Linux Kernel Complications">Linux Kernel Complications</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel provides an interesting environment for all kinds of
+software, including RCU.
+Some of the relevant points of interest are as follows:
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Configuration">Configuration</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Firmware Interface">Firmware Interface</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Early Boot">Early Boot</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Interrupts and NMIs">
+ Interrupts and non-maskable interrupts (NMIs)</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Loadable Modules">Loadable Modules</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Hotplug CPU">Hotplug CPU</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Scheduler and RCU">Scheduler and RCU</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Tracing and RCU">Tracing and RCU</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Energy Efficiency">Energy Efficiency</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Memory Efficiency">Memory Efficiency</a>.
+<li> <a href="#Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability">
+ Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability</a>.
+</ol>
+
+<p>
+This list is probably incomplete, but it does give a feel for the
+most notable Linux-kernel complications.
+Each of the following sections covers one of the above topics.
+
+<h3><a name="Configuration">Configuration</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU's goal is automatic configuration, so that almost nobody
+needs to worry about RCU's <tt>Kconfig</tt> options.
+And for almost all users, RCU does in fact work well
+&ldquo;out of the box.&rdquo;
+
+<p>
+However, there are specialized use cases that are handled by
+kernel boot parameters and <tt>Kconfig</tt> options.
+Unfortunately, the <tt>Kconfig</tt> system will explicitly ask users
+about new <tt>Kconfig</tt> options, which requires almost all of them
+be hidden behind a <tt>CONFIG_RCU_EXPERT</tt> <tt>Kconfig</tt> option.
+
+<p>
+This all should be quite obvious, but the fact remains that
+Linus Torvalds recently had to
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/CA+55aFy4wcCwaL4okTs8wXhGZ5h-ibecy_Meg9C4MNQrUnwMcg@mail.gmail.com">remind</a>
+me of this requirement.
+
+<h3><a name="Firmware Interface">Firmware Interface</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+In many cases, kernel obtains information about the system from the
+firmware, and sometimes things are lost in translation.
+Or the translation is accurate, but the original message is bogus.
+
+<p>
+For example, some systems' firmware overreports the number of CPUs,
+sometimes by a large factor.
+If RCU naively believed the firmware, as it used to do,
+it would create too many per-CPU kthreads.
+Although the resulting system will still run correctly, the extra
+kthreads needlessly consume memory and can cause confusion
+when they show up in <tt>ps</tt> listings.
+
+<p>
+RCU must therefore wait for a given CPU to actually come online before
+it can allow itself to believe that the CPU actually exists.
+The resulting &ldquo;ghost CPUs&rdquo; (which are never going to
+come online) cause a number of
+<a href="https://paulmck.livejournal.com/37494.html">interesting complications</a>.
+
+<h3><a name="Early Boot">Early Boot</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel's boot sequence is an interesting process,
+and RCU is used early, even before <tt>rcu_init()</tt>
+is invoked.
+In fact, a number of RCU's primitives can be used as soon as the
+initial task's <tt>task_struct</tt> is available and the
+boot CPU's per-CPU variables are set up.
+The read-side primitives (<tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>, <tt>rcu_dereference()</tt>,
+and <tt>rcu_access_pointer()</tt>) will operate normally very early on,
+as will <tt>rcu_assign_pointer()</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Although <tt>call_rcu()</tt> may be invoked at any
+time during boot, callbacks are not guaranteed to be invoked until after
+the scheduler is fully up and running.
+This delay in callback invocation is due to the fact that RCU does not
+invoke callbacks until it is fully initialized, and this full initialization
+cannot occur until after the scheduler has initialized itself to the
+point where RCU can spawn and run its kthreads.
+In theory, it would be possible to invoke callbacks earlier,
+however, this is not a panacea because there would be severe restrictions
+on what operations those callbacks could invoke.
+
+<p>
+Perhaps surprisingly, <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>,
+<a href="#Bottom-Half Flavor"><tt>synchronize_rcu_bh()</tt></a>
+(<a href="#Bottom-Half Flavor">discussed below</a>),
+and
+<a href="#Sched Flavor"><tt>synchronize_sched()</tt></a>
+will all operate normally
+during very early boot, the reason being that there is only one CPU
+and preemption is disabled.
+This means that the call <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> (or friends)
+itself is a quiescent
+state and thus a grace period, so the early-boot implementation can
+be a no-op.
+
+<p>
+Both <tt>synchronize_rcu_bh()</tt> and <tt>synchronize_sched()</tt>
+continue to operate normally through the remainder of boot, courtesy
+of the fact that preemption is disabled across their RCU read-side
+critical sections and also courtesy of the fact that there is still
+only one CPU.
+However, once the scheduler starts initializing, preemption is enabled.
+There is still only a single CPU, but the fact that preemption is enabled
+means that the no-op implementation of <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> no
+longer works in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> kernels.
+Therefore, as soon as the scheduler starts initializing, the early-boot
+fastpath is disabled.
+This means that <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> switches to its runtime
+mode of operation where it posts callbacks, which in turn means that
+any call to <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> will block until the corresponding
+callback is invoked.
+Unfortunately, the callback cannot be invoked until RCU's runtime
+grace-period machinery is up and running, which cannot happen until
+the scheduler has initialized itself sufficiently to allow RCU's
+kthreads to be spawned.
+Therefore, invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> during scheduler
+initialization can result in deadlock.
+
+<p>@@QQ@@
+So what happens with <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> during
+scheduler initialization for <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>
+kernels?
+<p>@@QQA@@
+In <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt> kernel, <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+maps directly to <tt>synchronize_sched()</tt>.
+Therefore, <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> works normally throughout
+boot in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt> kernels.
+However, your code must also work in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> kernels,
+so it is still necessary to avoid invoking <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>
+during scheduler initialization.
+<p>@@QQE@@
+
+<p>
+I learned of these boot-time requirements as a result of a series of
+system hangs.
+
+<h3><a name="Interrupts and NMIs">Interrupts and NMIs</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel has interrupts, and RCU read-side critical sections are
+legal within interrupt handlers and within interrupt-disabled regions
+of code, as are invocations of <tt>call_rcu()</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Some Linux-kernel architectures can enter an interrupt handler from
+non-idle process context, and then just never leave it, instead stealthily
+transitioning back to process context.
+This trick is sometimes used to invoke system calls from inside the kernel.
+These &ldquo;half-interrupts&rdquo; mean that RCU has to be very careful
+about how it counts interrupt nesting levels.
+I learned of this requirement the hard way during a rewrite
+of RCU's dyntick-idle code.
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel has non-maskable interrupts (NMIs), and
+RCU read-side critical sections are legal within NMI handlers.
+Thankfully, RCU update-side primitives, including
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt>, are prohibited within NMI handlers.
+
+<p>
+The name notwithstanding, some Linux-kernel architectures
+can have nested NMIs, which RCU must handle correctly.
+Andy Lutomirski
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/CALCETrXLq1y7e_dKFPgou-FKHB6Pu-r8+t-6Ds+8=va7anBWDA@mail.gmail.com">surprised me</a>
+with this requirement;
+he also kindly surprised me with
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/CALCETrXSY9JpW3uE6H8WYk81sg56qasA2aqmjMPsq5dOtzso=g@mail.gmail.com">an algorithm</a>
+that meets this requirement.
+
+<h3><a name="Loadable Modules">Loadable Modules</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel has loadable modules, and these modules can
+also be unloaded.
+After a given module has been unloaded, any attempt to call
+one of its functions results in a segmentation fault.
+The module-unload functions must therefore cancel any
+delayed calls to loadable-module functions, for example,
+any outstanding <tt>mod_timer()</tt> must be dealt with
+via <tt>del_timer_sync()</tt> or similar.
+
+<p>
+Unfortunately, there is no way to cancel an RCU callback;
+once you invoke <tt>call_rcu()</tt>, the callback function is
+going to eventually be invoked, unless the system goes down first.
+Because it is normally considered socially irresponsible to crash the system
+in response to a module unload request, we need some other way
+to deal with in-flight RCU callbacks.
+
+<p>
+RCU therefore provides
+<tt><a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/217484/">rcu_barrier()</a></tt>,
+which waits until all in-flight RCU callbacks have been invoked.
+If a module uses <tt>call_rcu()</tt>, its exit function should therefore
+prevent any future invocation of <tt>call_rcu()</tt>, then invoke
+<tt>rcu_barrier()</tt>.
+In theory, the underlying module-unload code could invoke
+<tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> unconditionally, but in practice this would
+incur unacceptable latencies.
+
+<p>
+Nikita Danilov noted this requirement for an analogous filesystem-unmount
+situation, and Dipankar Sarma incorporated <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> into RCU.
+The need for <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> for module unloading became
+apparent later.
+
+<h3><a name="Hotplug CPU">Hotplug CPU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel supports CPU hotplug, which means that CPUs
+can come and go.
+It is of course illegal to use any RCU API member from an offline CPU.
+This requirement was present from day one in DYNIX/ptx, but
+on the other hand, the Linux kernel's CPU-hotplug implementation
+is &ldquo;interesting.&rdquo;
+
+<p>
+The Linux-kernel CPU-hotplug implementation has notifiers that
+are used to allow the various kernel subsystems (including RCU)
+to respond appropriately to a given CPU-hotplug operation.
+Most RCU operations may be invoked from CPU-hotplug notifiers,
+including even normal synchronous grace-period operations
+such as <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>.
+However, expedited grace-period operations such as
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt> are not supported,
+due to the fact that current implementations block CPU-hotplug
+operations, which could result in deadlock.
+
+<p>
+In addition, all-callback-wait operations such as
+<tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> are also not supported, due to the
+fact that there are phases of CPU-hotplug operations where
+the outgoing CPU's callbacks will not be invoked until after
+the CPU-hotplug operation ends, which could also result in deadlock.
+
+<h3><a name="Scheduler and RCU">Scheduler and RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+RCU depends on the scheduler, and the scheduler uses RCU to
+protect some of its data structures.
+This means the scheduler is forbidden from acquiring
+the runqueue locks and the priority-inheritance locks
+in the middle of an outermost RCU read-side critical section unless either
+(1)&nbsp;it releases them before exiting that same
+RCU read-side critical section, or
+(2)&nbsp;interrupts are disabled across
+that entire RCU read-side critical section.
+This same prohibition also applies (recursively!) to any lock that is acquired
+while holding any lock to which this prohibition applies.
+Adhering to this rule prevents preemptible RCU from invoking
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_special()</tt> while either runqueue or
+priority-inheritance locks are held, thus avoiding deadlock.
+
+<p>
+Prior to v4.4, it was only necessary to disable preemption across
+RCU read-side critical sections that acquired scheduler locks.
+In v4.4, expedited grace periods started using IPIs, and these
+IPIs could force a <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> to take the slowpath.
+Therefore, this expedited-grace-period change required disabling of
+interrupts, not just preemption.
+
+<p>
+For RCU's part, the preemptible-RCU <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+implementation must be written carefully to avoid similar deadlocks.
+In particular, <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> must tolerate an
+interrupt where the interrupt handler invokes both
+<tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+This possibility requires <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt> to use
+negative nesting levels to avoid destructive recursion via
+interrupt handler's use of RCU.
+
+<p>
+This pair of mutual scheduler-RCU requirements came as a
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/453002/">complete surprise</a>.
+
+<p>
+As noted above, RCU makes use of kthreads, and it is necessary to
+avoid excessive CPU-time accumulation by these kthreads.
+This requirement was no surprise, but RCU's violation of it
+when running context-switch-heavy workloads when built with
+<tt>CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL=y</tt>
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/scalability/paper/BareMetal.2015.01.15b.pdf">did come as a surprise [PDF]</a>.
+RCU has made good progress towards meeting this requirement, even
+for context-switch-have <tt>CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL=y</tt> workloads,
+but there is room for further improvement.
+
+<h3><a name="Tracing and RCU">Tracing and RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+It is possible to use tracing on RCU code, but tracing itself
+uses RCU.
+For this reason, <tt>rcu_dereference_raw_notrace()</tt>
+is provided for use by tracing, which avoids the destructive
+recursion that could otherwise ensue.
+This API is also used by virtualization in some architectures,
+where RCU readers execute in environments in which tracing
+cannot be used.
+The tracing folks both located the requirement and provided the
+needed fix, so this surprise requirement was relatively painless.
+
+<h3><a name="Energy Efficiency">Energy Efficiency</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Interrupting idle CPUs is considered socially unacceptable,
+especially by people with battery-powered embedded systems.
+RCU therefore conserves energy by detecting which CPUs are
+idle, including tracking CPUs that have been interrupted from idle.
+This is a large part of the energy-efficiency requirement,
+so I learned of this via an irate phone call.
+
+<p>
+Because RCU avoids interrupting idle CPUs, it is illegal to
+execute an RCU read-side critical section on an idle CPU.
+(Kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_PROVE_RCU=y</tt> will splat
+if you try it.)
+The <tt>RCU_NONIDLE()</tt> macro and <tt>_rcuidle</tt>
+event tracing is provided to work around this restriction.
+In addition, <tt>rcu_is_watching()</tt> may be used to
+test whether or not it is currently legal to run RCU read-side
+critical sections on this CPU.
+I learned of the need for diagnostics on the one hand
+and <tt>RCU_NONIDLE()</tt> on the other while inspecting
+idle-loop code.
+Steven Rostedt supplied <tt>_rcuidle</tt> event tracing,
+which is used quite heavily in the idle loop.
+
+<p>
+It is similarly socially unacceptable to interrupt an
+<tt>nohz_full</tt> CPU running in userspace.
+RCU must therefore track <tt>nohz_full</tt> userspace
+execution.
+And in
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/558284/"><tt>CONFIG_NO_HZ_FULL_SYSIDLE=y</tt></a>
+kernels, RCU must separately track idle CPUs on the one hand and
+CPUs that are either idle or executing in userspace on the other.
+In both cases, RCU must be able to sample state at two points in
+time, and be able to determine whether or not some other CPU spent
+any time idle and/or executing in userspace.
+
+<p>
+These energy-efficiency requirements have proven quite difficult to
+understand and to meet, for example, there have been more than five
+clean-sheet rewrites of RCU's energy-efficiency code, the last of
+which was finally able to demonstrate
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/realtime/paper/AMPenergy.2013.04.19a.pdf">real energy savings running on real hardware [PDF]</a>.
+As noted earlier,
+I learned of many of these requirements via angry phone calls:
+Flaming me on the Linux-kernel mailing list was apparently not
+sufficient to fully vent their ire at RCU's energy-efficiency bugs!
+
+<h3><a name="Memory Efficiency">Memory Efficiency</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Although small-memory non-realtime systems can simply use Tiny RCU,
+code size is only one aspect of memory efficiency.
+Another aspect is the size of the <tt>rcu_head</tt> structure
+used by <tt>call_rcu()</tt> and <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>.
+Although this structure contains nothing more than a pair of pointers,
+it does appear in many RCU-protected data structures, including
+some that are size critical.
+The <tt>page</tt> structure is a case in point, as evidenced by
+the many occurrences of the <tt>union</tt> keyword within that structure.
+
+<p>
+This need for memory efficiency is one reason that RCU uses hand-crafted
+singly linked lists to track the <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures that
+are waiting for a grace period to elapse.
+It is also the reason why <tt>rcu_head</tt> structures do not contain
+debug information, such as fields tracking the file and line of the
+<tt>call_rcu()</tt> or <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt> that posted them.
+Although this information might appear in debug-only kernel builds at some
+point, in the meantime, the <tt>-&gt;func</tt> field will often provide
+the needed debug information.
+
+<p>
+However, in some cases, the need for memory efficiency leads to even
+more extreme measures.
+Returning to the <tt>page</tt> structure, the <tt>rcu_head</tt> field
+shares storage with a great many other structures that are used at
+various points in the corresponding page's lifetime.
+In order to correctly resolve certain
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/1439976106-137226-1-git-send-email-kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com">race conditions</a>,
+the Linux kernel's memory-management subsystem needs a particular bit
+to remain zero during all phases of grace-period processing,
+and that bit happens to map to the bottom bit of the
+<tt>rcu_head</tt> structure's <tt>-&gt;next</tt> field.
+RCU makes this guarantee as long as <tt>call_rcu()</tt>
+is used to post the callback, as opposed to <tt>kfree_rcu()</tt>
+or some future &ldquo;lazy&rdquo;
+variant of <tt>call_rcu()</tt> that might one day be created for
+energy-efficiency purposes.
+
+<h3><a name="Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability">
+Performance, Scalability, Response Time, and Reliability</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Expanding on the
+<a href="#Performance and Scalability">earlier discussion</a>,
+RCU is used heavily by hot code paths in performance-critical
+portions of the Linux kernel's networking, security, virtualization,
+and scheduling code paths.
+RCU must therefore use efficient implementations, especially in its
+read-side primitives.
+To that end, it would be good if preemptible RCU's implementation
+of <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> could be inlined, however, doing
+this requires resolving <tt>#include</tt> issues with the
+<tt>task_struct</tt> structure.
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel supports hardware configurations with up to
+4096 CPUs, which means that RCU must be extremely scalable.
+Algorithms that involve frequent acquisitions of global locks or
+frequent atomic operations on global variables simply cannot be
+tolerated within the RCU implementation.
+RCU therefore makes heavy use of a combining tree based on the
+<tt>rcu_node</tt> structure.
+RCU is required to tolerate all CPUs continuously invoking any
+combination of RCU's runtime primitives with minimal per-operation
+overhead.
+In fact, in many cases, increasing load must <i>decrease</i> the
+per-operation overhead, witness the batching optimizations for
+<tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt>, <tt>call_rcu()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_expedited()</tt>, and <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt>.
+As a general rule, RCU must cheerfully accept whatever the
+rest of the Linux kernel decides to throw at it.
+
+<p>
+The Linux kernel is used for real-time workloads, especially
+in conjunction with the
+<a href="https://rt.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Main_Page">-rt patchset</a>.
+The real-time-latency response requirements are such that the
+traditional approach of disabling preemption across RCU
+read-side critical sections is inappropriate.
+Kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> therefore
+use an RCU implementation that allows RCU read-side critical
+sections to be preempted.
+This requirement made its presence known after users made it
+clear that an earlier
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/107930/">real-time patch</a>
+did not meet their needs, in conjunction with some
+<a href="https://lkml.kernel.org/g/20050318002026.GA2693@us.ibm.com">RCU issues</a>
+encountered by a very early version of the -rt patchset.
+
+<p>
+In addition, RCU must make do with a sub-100-microsecond real-time latency
+budget.
+In fact, on smaller systems with the -rt patchset, the Linux kernel
+provides sub-20-microsecond real-time latencies for the whole kernel,
+including RCU.
+RCU's scalability and latency must therefore be sufficient for
+these sorts of configurations.
+To my surprise, the sub-100-microsecond real-time latency budget
+<a href="http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/realtime/paper/bigrt.2013.01.31a.LCA.pdf">
+applies to even the largest systems [PDF]</a>,
+up to and including systems with 4096 CPUs.
+This real-time requirement motivated the grace-period kthread, which
+also simplified handling of a number of race conditions.
+
+<p>
+Finally, RCU's status as a synchronization primitive means that
+any RCU failure can result in arbitrary memory corruption that can be
+extremely difficult to debug.
+This means that RCU must be extremely reliable, which in
+practice also means that RCU must have an aggressive stress-test
+suite.
+This stress-test suite is called <tt>rcutorture</tt>.
+
+<p>
+Although the need for <tt>rcutorture</tt> was no surprise,
+the current immense popularity of the Linux kernel is posing
+interesting&mdash;and perhaps unprecedented&mdash;validation
+challenges.
+To see this, keep in mind that there are well over one billion
+instances of the Linux kernel running today, given Android
+smartphones, Linux-powered televisions, and servers.
+This number can be expected to increase sharply with the advent of
+the celebrated Internet of Things.
+
+<p>
+Suppose that RCU contains a race condition that manifests on average
+once per million years of runtime.
+This bug will be occurring about three times per <i>day</i> across
+the installed base.
+RCU could simply hide behind hardware error rates, given that no one
+should really expect their smartphone to last for a million years.
+However, anyone taking too much comfort from this thought should
+consider the fact that in most jurisdictions, a successful multi-year
+test of a given mechanism, which might include a Linux kernel,
+suffices for a number of types of safety-critical certifications.
+In fact, rumor has it that the Linux kernel is already being used
+in production for safety-critical applications.
+I don't know about you, but I would feel quite bad if a bug in RCU
+killed someone.
+Which might explain my recent focus on validation and verification.
+
+<h2><a name="Other RCU Flavors">Other RCU Flavors</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+One of the more surprising things about RCU is that there are now
+no fewer than five <i>flavors</i>, or API families.
+In addition, the primary flavor that has been the sole focus up to
+this point has two different implementations, non-preemptible and
+preemptible.
+The other four flavors are listed below, with requirements for each
+described in a separate section.
+
+<ol>
+<li> <a href="#Bottom-Half Flavor">Bottom-Half Flavor</a>
+<li> <a href="#Sched Flavor">Sched Flavor</a>
+<li> <a href="#Sleepable RCU">Sleepable RCU</a>
+<li> <a href="#Tasks RCU">Tasks RCU</a>
+</ol>
+
+<h3><a name="Bottom-Half Flavor">Bottom-Half Flavor</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The softirq-disable (AKA &ldquo;bottom-half&rdquo;,
+hence the &ldquo;_bh&rdquo; abbreviations)
+flavor of RCU, or <i>RCU-bh</i>, was developed by
+Dipankar Sarma to provide a flavor of RCU that could withstand the
+network-based denial-of-service attacks researched by Robert
+Olsson.
+These attacks placed so much networking load on the system
+that some of the CPUs never exited softirq execution,
+which in turn prevented those CPUs from ever executing a context switch,
+which, in the RCU implementation of that time, prevented grace periods
+from ever ending.
+The result was an out-of-memory condition and a system hang.
+
+<p>
+The solution was the creation of RCU-bh, which does
+<tt>local_bh_disable()</tt>
+across its read-side critical sections, and which uses the transition
+from one type of softirq processing to another as a quiescent state
+in addition to context switch, idle, user mode, and offline.
+This means that RCU-bh grace periods can complete even when some of
+the CPUs execute in softirq indefinitely, thus allowing algorithms
+based on RCU-bh to withstand network-based denial-of-service attacks.
+
+<p>
+Because
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_bh()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>
+disable and re-enable softirq handlers, any attempt to start a softirq
+handlers during the
+RCU-bh read-side critical section will be deferred.
+In this case, <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>
+will invoke softirq processing, which can take considerable time.
+One can of course argue that this softirq overhead should be associated
+with the code following the RCU-bh read-side critical section rather
+than <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>, but the fact
+is that most profiling tools cannot be expected to make this sort
+of fine distinction.
+For example, suppose that a three-millisecond-long RCU-bh read-side
+critical section executes during a time of heavy networking load.
+There will very likely be an attempt to invoke at least one softirq
+handler during that three milliseconds, but any such invocation will
+be delayed until the time of the <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>.
+This can of course make it appear at first glance as if
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt> was executing very slowly.
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU Per-Flavor API Table">RCU-bh API</a>
+includes
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_bh_check()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_bh_expedited()</tt>,
+<tt>call_rcu_bh()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_barrier_bh()</tt>, and
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_bh_held()</tt>.
+
+<h3><a name="Sched Flavor">Sched Flavor</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Before preemptible RCU, waiting for an RCU grace period had the
+side effect of also waiting for all pre-existing interrupt
+and NMI handlers.
+However, there are legitimate preemptible-RCU implementations that
+do not have this property, given that any point in the code outside
+of an RCU read-side critical section can be a quiescent state.
+Therefore, <i>RCU-sched</i> was created, which follows &ldquo;classic&rdquo;
+RCU in that an RCU-sched grace period waits for for pre-existing
+interrupt and NMI handlers.
+In kernels built with <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=n</tt>, the RCU and RCU-sched
+APIs have identical implementations, while kernels built with
+<tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> provide a separate implementation for each.
+
+<p>
+Note well that in <tt>CONFIG_PREEMPT=y</tt> kernels,
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt>
+disable and re-enable preemption, respectively.
+This means that if there was a preemption attempt during the
+RCU-sched read-side critical section, <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt>
+will enter the scheduler, with all the latency and overhead entailed.
+Just as with <tt>rcu_read_unlock_bh()</tt>, this can make it look
+as if <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt> was executing very slowly.
+However, the highest-priority task won't be preempted, so that task
+will enjoy low-overhead <tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt> invocations.
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU Per-Flavor API Table">RCU-sched API</a>
+includes
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched_notrace()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock_sched_notrace()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_dereference_sched_check()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_sched_expedited()</tt>,
+<tt>call_rcu_sched()</tt>,
+<tt>rcu_barrier_sched()</tt>, and
+<tt>rcu_read_lock_sched_held()</tt>.
+However, anything that disables preemption also marks an RCU-sched
+read-side critical section, including
+<tt>preempt_disable()</tt> and <tt>preempt_enable()</tt>,
+<tt>local_irq_save()</tt> and <tt>local_irq_restore()</tt>,
+and so on.
+
+<h3><a name="Sleepable RCU">Sleepable RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+For well over a decade, someone saying &ldquo;I need to block within
+an RCU read-side critical section&rdquo; was a reliable indication
+that this someone did not understand RCU.
+After all, if you are always blocking in an RCU read-side critical
+section, you can probably afford to use a higher-overhead synchronization
+mechanism.
+However, that changed with the advent of the Linux kernel's notifiers,
+whose RCU read-side critical
+sections almost never sleep, but sometimes need to.
+This resulted in the introduction of
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/202847/">sleepable RCU</a>,
+or <i>SRCU</i>.
+
+<p>
+SRCU allows different domains to be defined, with each such domain
+defined by an instance of an <tt>srcu_struct</tt> structure.
+A pointer to this structure must be passed in to each SRCU function,
+for example, <tt>synchronize_srcu(&amp;ss)</tt>, where
+<tt>ss</tt> is the <tt>srcu_struct</tt> structure.
+The key benefit of these domains is that a slow SRCU reader in one
+domain does not delay an SRCU grace period in some other domain.
+That said, one consequence of these domains is that read-side code
+must pass a &ldquo;cookie&rdquo; from <tt>srcu_read_lock()</tt>
+to <tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt>, for example, as follows:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 int idx;
+ 2
+ 3 idx = srcu_read_lock(&amp;ss);
+ 4 do_something();
+ 5 srcu_read_unlock(&amp;ss, idx);
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+As noted above, it is legal to block within SRCU read-side critical sections,
+however, with great power comes great responsibility.
+If you block forever in one of a given domain's SRCU read-side critical
+sections, then that domain's grace periods will also be blocked forever.
+Of course, one good way to block forever is to deadlock, which can
+happen if any operation in a given domain's SRCU read-side critical
+section can block waiting, either directly or indirectly, for that domain's
+grace period to elapse.
+For example, this results in a self-deadlock:
+
+<blockquote>
+<pre>
+ 1 int idx;
+ 2
+ 3 idx = srcu_read_lock(&amp;ss);
+ 4 do_something();
+ 5 synchronize_srcu(&amp;ss);
+ 6 srcu_read_unlock(&amp;ss, idx);
+</pre>
+</blockquote>
+
+<p>
+However, if line&nbsp;5 acquired a mutex that was held across
+a <tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt> for domain <tt>ss</tt>,
+deadlock would still be possible.
+Furthermore, if line&nbsp;5 acquired a mutex that was held across
+a <tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt> for some other domain <tt>ss1</tt>,
+and if an <tt>ss1</tt>-domain SRCU read-side critical section
+acquired another mutex that was held across as <tt>ss</tt>-domain
+<tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt>,
+deadlock would again be possible.
+Such a deadlock cycle could extend across an arbitrarily large number
+of different SRCU domains.
+Again, with great power comes great responsibility.
+
+<p>
+Unlike the other RCU flavors, SRCU read-side critical sections can
+run on idle and even offline CPUs.
+This ability requires that <tt>srcu_read_lock()</tt> and
+<tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt> contain memory barriers, which means
+that SRCU readers will run a bit slower than would RCU readers.
+It also motivates the <tt>smp_mb__after_srcu_read_unlock()</tt>
+API, which, in combination with <tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt>,
+guarantees a full memory barrier.
+
+<p>
+The
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/609973/#RCU Per-Flavor API Table">SRCU API</a>
+includes
+<tt>srcu_read_lock()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_read_unlock()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_dereference()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_dereference_check()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_srcu()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_srcu_expedited()</tt>,
+<tt>call_srcu()</tt>,
+<tt>srcu_barrier()</tt>, and
+<tt>srcu_read_lock_held()</tt>.
+It also includes
+<tt>DEFINE_SRCU()</tt>,
+<tt>DEFINE_STATIC_SRCU()</tt>, and
+<tt>init_srcu_struct()</tt>
+APIs for defining and initializing <tt>srcu_struct</tt> structures.
+
+<h3><a name="Tasks RCU">Tasks RCU</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Some forms of tracing use &ldquo;tramopolines&rdquo; to handle the
+binary rewriting required to install different types of probes.
+It would be good to be able to free old trampolines, which sounds
+like a job for some form of RCU.
+However, because it is necessary to be able to install a trace
+anywhere in the code, it is not possible to use read-side markers
+such as <tt>rcu_read_lock()</tt> and <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+In addition, it does not work to have these markers in the trampoline
+itself, because there would need to be instructions following
+<tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>.
+Although <tt>synchronize_rcu()</tt> would guarantee that execution
+reached the <tt>rcu_read_unlock()</tt>, it would not be able to
+guarantee that execution had completely left the trampoline.
+
+<p>
+The solution, in the form of
+<a href="https://lwn.net/Articles/607117/"><i>Tasks RCU</i></a>,
+is to have implicit
+read-side critical sections that are delimited by voluntary context
+switches, that is, calls to <tt>schedule()</tt>,
+<tt>cond_resched_rcu_qs()</tt>, and
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_tasks()</tt>.
+In addition, transitions to and from userspace execution also delimit
+tasks-RCU read-side critical sections.
+
+<p>
+The tasks-RCU API is quite compact, consisting only of
+<tt>call_rcu_tasks()</tt>,
+<tt>synchronize_rcu_tasks()</tt>, and
+<tt>rcu_barrier_tasks()</tt>.
+
+<h2><a name="Possible Future Changes">Possible Future Changes</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+One of the tricks that RCU uses to attain update-side scalability is
+to increase grace-period latency with increasing numbers of CPUs.
+If this becomes a serious problem, it will be necessary to rework the
+grace-period state machine so as to avoid the need for the additional
+latency.
+
+<p>
+Expedited grace periods scan the CPUs, so their latency and overhead
+increases with increasing numbers of CPUs.
+If this becomes a serious problem on large systems, it will be necessary
+to do some redesign to avoid this scalability problem.
+
+<p>
+RCU disables CPU hotplug in a few places, perhaps most notably in the
+expedited grace-period and <tt>rcu_barrier()</tt> operations.
+If there is a strong reason to use expedited grace periods in CPU-hotplug
+notifiers, it will be necessary to avoid disabling CPU hotplug.
+This would introduce some complexity, so there had better be a <i>very</i>
+good reason.
+
+<p>
+The tradeoff between grace-period latency on the one hand and interruptions
+of other CPUs on the other hand may need to be re-examined.
+The desire is of course for zero grace-period latency as well as zero
+interprocessor interrupts undertaken during an expedited grace period
+operation.
+While this ideal is unlikely to be achievable, it is quite possible that
+further improvements can be made.
+
+<p>
+The multiprocessor implementations of RCU use a combining tree that
+groups CPUs so as to reduce lock contention and increase cache locality.
+However, this combining tree does not spread its memory across NUMA
+nodes nor does it align the CPU groups with hardware features such
+as sockets or cores.
+Such spreading and alignment is currently believed to be unnecessary
+because the hotpath read-side primitives do not access the combining
+tree, nor does <tt>call_rcu()</tt> in the common case.
+If you believe that your architecture needs such spreading and alignment,
+then your architecture should also benefit from the
+<tt>rcutree.rcu_fanout_leaf</tt> boot parameter, which can be set
+to the number of CPUs in a socket, NUMA node, or whatever.
+If the number of CPUs is too large, use a fraction of the number of
+CPUs.
+If the number of CPUs is a large prime number, well, that certainly
+is an &ldquo;interesting&rdquo; architectural choice!
+More flexible arrangements might be considered, but only if
+<tt>rcutree.rcu_fanout_leaf</tt> has proven inadequate, and only
+if the inadequacy has been demonstrated by a carefully run and
+realistic system-level workload.
+
+<p>
+Please note that arrangements that require RCU to remap CPU numbers will
+require extremely good demonstration of need and full exploration of
+alternatives.
+
+<p>
+There is an embarrassingly large number of flavors of RCU, and this
+number has been increasing over time.
+Perhaps it will be possible to combine some at some future date.
+
+<p>
+RCU's various kthreads are reasonably recent additions.
+It is quite likely that adjustments will be required to more gracefully
+handle extreme loads.
+It might also be necessary to be able to relate CPU utilization by
+RCU's kthreads and softirq handlers to the code that instigated this
+CPU utilization.
+For example, RCU callback overhead might be charged back to the
+originating <tt>call_rcu()</tt> instance, though probably not
+in production kernels.
+
+<h2><a name="Summary">Summary</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+This document has presented more than two decade's worth of RCU
+requirements.
+Given that the requirements keep changing, this will not be the last
+word on this subject, but at least it serves to get an important
+subset of the requirements set forth.
+
+<h2><a name="Acknowledgments">Acknowledgments</a></h2>
+
+I am grateful to Steven Rostedt, Lai Jiangshan, Ingo Molnar,
+Oleg Nesterov, Borislav Petkov, Peter Zijlstra, Boqun Feng, and
+Andy Lutomirski for their help in rendering
+this article human readable, and to Michelle Rankin for her support
+of this effort.
+Other contributions are acknowledged in the Linux kernel's git archive.
+The cartoon is copyright (c) 2013 by Melissa Broussard,
+and is provided
+under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
+United States license.
+
+<p>@@QQAL@@
+
+</body></html>
diff --git a/Documentation/RCU/Design/htmlqqz.sh b/Documentation/RCU/Design/htmlqqz.sh
new file mode 100755
index 000000000000..d354f069559b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RCU/Design/htmlqqz.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,108 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+#
+# Usage: sh htmlqqz.sh file
+#
+# Extracts and converts quick quizzes in a proto-HTML document file.htmlx.
+# Commands, all of which must be on a line by themselves:
+#
+# "<p>@@QQ@@": Start of a quick quiz.
+# "<p>@@QQA@@": Start of a quick-quiz answer.
+# "<p>@@QQE@@": End of a quick-quiz answer, and thus of the quick quiz.
+# "<p>@@QQAL@@": Place to put quick-quiz answer list.
+#
+# Places the result in file.html.
+#
+# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+# (at your option) any later version.
+#
+# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+# GNU General Public License for more details.
+#
+# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
+# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2013 Paul E. McKenney, IBM Corporation.
+
+fn=$1
+if test ! -r $fn.htmlx
+then
+ echo "Error: $fn.htmlx unreadable."
+ exit 1
+fi
+
+echo "<!-- DO NOT HAND EDIT. -->" > $fn.html
+echo "<!-- Instead, edit $fn.htmlx and run 'sh htmlqqz.sh $fn' -->" >> $fn.html
+awk < $fn.htmlx >> $fn.html '
+
+state == "" && $1 != "<p>@@QQ@@" && $1 != "<p>@@QQAL@@" {
+ print $0;
+ if ($0 ~ /^<p>@@QQ/)
+ print "Bad Quick Quiz command: " NR " (expected <p>@@QQ@@ or <p>@@QQAL@@)." > "/dev/stderr"
+ next;
+}
+
+state == "" && $1 == "<p>@@QQ@@" {
+ qqn++;
+ qqlineno = NR;
+ haveqq = 1;
+ state = "qq";
+ print "<p><a name=\"Quick Quiz " qqn "\"><b>Quick Quiz " qqn "</b>:</a>"
+ next;
+}
+
+state == "qq" && $1 != "<p>@@QQA@@" {
+ qq[qqn] = qq[qqn] $0 "\n";
+ print $0
+ if ($0 ~ /^<p>@@QQ/)
+ print "Bad Quick Quiz command: " NR ". (expected <p>@@QQA@@)" > "/dev/stderr"
+ next;
+}
+
+state == "qq" && $1 == "<p>@@QQA@@" {
+ state = "qqa";
+ print "<br><a href=\"#qq" qqn "answer\">Answer</a>"
+ next;
+}
+
+state == "qqa" && $1 != "<p>@@QQE@@" {
+ qqa[qqn] = qqa[qqn] $0 "\n";
+ if ($0 ~ /^<p>@@QQ/)
+ print "Bad Quick Quiz command: " NR " (expected <p>@@QQE@@)." > "/dev/stderr"
+ next;
+}
+
+state == "qqa" && $1 == "<p>@@QQE@@" {
+ state = "";
+ next;
+}
+
+state == "" && $1 == "<p>@@QQAL@@" {
+ haveqq = "";
+ print "<h3><a name=\"Answers to Quick Quizzes\">"
+ print "Answers to Quick Quizzes</a></h3>"
+ print "";
+ for (i = 1; i <= qqn; i++) {
+ print "<a name=\"qq" i "answer\"></a>"
+ print "<p><b>Quick Quiz " i "</b>:"
+ print qq[i];
+ print "";
+ print "</p><p><b>Answer</b>:"
+ print qqa[i];
+ print "";
+ print "</p><p><a href=\"#Quick%20Quiz%20" i "\"><b>Back to Quick Quiz " i "</b>.</a>"
+ print "";
+ }
+ next;
+}
+
+END {
+ if (state != "")
+ print "Unterminated Quick Quiz: " qqlineno "." > "/dev/stderr"
+ else if (haveqq)
+ print "Missing \"<p>@@QQAL@@\", no Quick Quiz." > "/dev/stderr"
+}'
diff --git a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
index 742f69d18fc8..d8186da15ca1 100644
--- a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -3296,18 +3296,35 @@ bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted.
rcutorture.verbose= [KNL]
Enable additional printk() statements.
+ rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_suppress= [KNL]
+ Suppress RCU CPU stall warning messages.
+
+ rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_timeout= [KNL]
+ Set timeout for RCU CPU stall warning messages.
+
rcupdate.rcu_expedited= [KNL]
Use expedited grace-period primitives, for
example, synchronize_rcu_expedited() instead
of synchronize_rcu(). This reduces latency,
but can increase CPU utilization, degrade
real-time latency, and degrade energy efficiency.
-
- rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_suppress= [KNL]
- Suppress RCU CPU stall warning messages.
-
- rcupdate.rcu_cpu_stall_timeout= [KNL]
- Set timeout for RCU CPU stall warning messages.
+ No effect on CONFIG_TINY_RCU kernels.
+
+ rcupdate.rcu_normal= [KNL]
+ Use only normal grace-period primitives,
+ for example, synchronize_rcu() instead of
+ synchronize_rcu_expedited(). This improves
+ real-time latency, CPU utilization, and
+ energy efficiency, but can expose users to
+ increased grace-period latency. This parameter
+ overrides rcupdate.rcu_expedited. No effect on
+ CONFIG_TINY_RCU kernels.
+
+ rcupdate.rcu_normal_after_boot= [KNL]
+ Once boot has completed (that is, after
+ rcu_end_inkernel_boot() has been invoked), use
+ only normal grace-period primitives. No effect
+ on CONFIG_TINY_RCU kernels.
rcupdate.rcu_task_stall_timeout= [KNL]
Set timeout in jiffies for RCU task stall warning
diff --git a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
index aef9487303d0..85304ebd187c 100644
--- a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@ There are some minimal guarantees that may be expected of a CPU:
(*) On any given CPU, dependent memory accesses will be issued in order, with
respect to itself. This means that for:
- WRITE_ONCE(Q, P); smp_read_barrier_depends(); D = READ_ONCE(*Q);
+ Q = READ_ONCE(P); smp_read_barrier_depends(); D = READ_ONCE(*Q);
the CPU will issue the following memory operations:
@@ -202,9 +202,9 @@ There are some minimal guarantees that may be expected of a CPU:
and always in that order. On most systems, smp_read_barrier_depends()
does nothing, but it is required for DEC Alpha. The READ_ONCE()
- and WRITE_ONCE() are required to prevent compiler mischief. Please
- note that you should normally use something like rcu_dereference()
- instead of open-coding smp_read_barrier_depends().
+ is required to prevent compiler mischief. Please note that you
+ should normally use something like rcu_dereference() instead of
+ open-coding smp_read_barrier_depends().
(*) Overlapping loads and stores within a particular CPU will appear to be
ordered within that CPU. This means that for:
diff --git a/include/linux/list.h b/include/linux/list.h
index 993395a2e55c..5356f4d661a7 100644
--- a/include/linux/list.h
+++ b/include/linux/list.h
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@
static inline void INIT_LIST_HEAD(struct list_head *list)
{
- list->next = list;
+ WRITE_ONCE(list->next, list);
list->prev = list;
}
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ static inline void __list_add(struct list_head *new,
next->prev = new;
new->next = next;
new->prev = prev;
- prev->next = new;
+ WRITE_ONCE(prev->next, new);
}
#else
extern void __list_add(struct list_head *new,
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ static inline int list_is_last(const struct list_head *list,
*/
static inline int list_empty(const struct list_head *head)
{
- return head->next == head;
+ return READ_ONCE(head->next) == head;
}
/**
@@ -608,7 +608,7 @@ static inline int hlist_unhashed(const struct hlist_node *h)
static inline int hlist_empty(const struct hlist_head *h)
{
- return !h->first;
+ return !READ_ONCE(h->first);
}
static inline void __hlist_del(struct hlist_node *n)
@@ -642,7 +642,7 @@ static inline void hlist_add_head(struct hlist_node *n, struct hlist_head *h)
n->next = first;
if (first)
first->pprev = &n->next;
- h->first = n;
+ WRITE_ONCE(h->first, n);
n->pprev = &h->first;
}
@@ -653,14 +653,14 @@ static inline void hlist_add_before(struct hlist_node *n,
n->pprev = next->pprev;
n->next = next;
next->pprev = &n->next;
- *(n->pprev) = n;
+ WRITE_ONCE(*(n->pprev), n);
}
static inline void hlist_add_behind(struct hlist_node *n,
struct hlist_node *prev)
{
n->next = prev->next;
- prev->next = n;
+ WRITE_ONCE(prev->next, n);
n->pprev = &prev->next;
if (n->next)
diff --git a/include/linux/list_bl.h b/include/linux/list_bl.h
index 8132214e8efd..ee7229a6c06a 100644
--- a/include/linux/list_bl.h
+++ b/include/linux/list_bl.h
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@ static inline void hlist_bl_set_first(struct hlist_bl_head *h,
static inline int hlist_bl_empty(const struct hlist_bl_head *h)
{
- return !((unsigned long)h->first & ~LIST_BL_LOCKMASK);
+ return !((unsigned long)READ_ONCE(h->first) & ~LIST_BL_LOCKMASK);
}
static inline void hlist_bl_add_head(struct hlist_bl_node *n,
diff --git a/include/linux/list_nulls.h b/include/linux/list_nulls.h
index 444d2b1313bd..b01fe1009084 100644
--- a/include/linux/list_nulls.h
+++ b/include/linux/list_nulls.h
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ static inline int hlist_nulls_unhashed(const struct hlist_nulls_node *h)
static inline int hlist_nulls_empty(const struct hlist_nulls_head *h)
{
- return is_a_nulls(h->first);
+ return is_a_nulls(READ_ONCE(h->first));
}
static inline void hlist_nulls_add_head(struct hlist_nulls_node *n,
diff --git a/include/linux/rculist.h b/include/linux/rculist.h
index 5ed540986019..14ec1652daf4 100644
--- a/include/linux/rculist.h
+++ b/include/linux/rculist.h
@@ -179,32 +179,31 @@ static inline void list_replace_rcu(struct list_head *old,
}
/**
- * list_splice_init_rcu - splice an RCU-protected list into an existing list.
+ * __list_splice_init_rcu - join an RCU-protected list into an existing list.
* @list: the RCU-protected list to splice
- * @head: the place in the list to splice the first list into
+ * @prev: points to the last element of the existing list
+ * @next: points to the first element of the existing list
* @sync: function to sync: synchronize_rcu(), synchronize_sched(), ...
*
- * @head can be RCU-read traversed concurrently with this function.
+ * The list pointed to by @prev and @next can be RCU-read traversed
+ * concurrently with this function.
*
* Note that this function blocks.
*
- * Important note: the caller must take whatever action is necessary to
- * prevent any other updates to @head. In principle, it is possible
- * to modify the list as soon as sync() begins execution.
- * If this sort of thing becomes necessary, an alternative version
- * based on call_rcu() could be created. But only if -really-
- * needed -- there is no shortage of RCU API members.
+ * Important note: the caller must take whatever action is necessary to prevent
+ * any other updates to the existing list. In principle, it is possible to
+ * modify the list as soon as sync() begins execution. If this sort of thing
+ * becomes necessary, an alternative version based on call_rcu() could be
+ * created. But only if -really- needed -- there is no shortage of RCU API
+ * members.
*/
-static inline void list_splice_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
- struct list_head *head,
- void (*sync)(void))
+static inline void __list_splice_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
+ struct list_head *prev,
+ struct list_head *next,
+ void (*sync)(void))
{
struct list_head *first = list->next;
struct list_head *last = list->prev;
- struct list_head *at = head->next;
-
- if (list_empty(list))
- return;
/*
* "first" and "last" tracking list, so initialize it. RCU readers
@@ -231,10 +230,40 @@ static inline void list_splice_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
* this function.
*/
- last->next = at;
- rcu_assign_pointer(list_next_rcu(head), first);
- first->prev = head;
- at->prev = last;
+ last->next = next;
+ rcu_assign_pointer(list_next_rcu(prev), first);
+ first->prev = prev;
+ next->prev = last;
+}
+
+/**
+ * list_splice_init_rcu - splice an RCU-protected list into an existing list,
+ * designed for stacks.
+ * @list: the RCU-protected list to splice
+ * @head: the place in the existing list to splice the first list into
+ * @sync: function to sync: synchronize_rcu(), synchronize_sched(), ...
+ */
+static inline void list_splice_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
+ struct list_head *head,
+ void (*sync)(void))
+{
+ if (!list_empty(list))
+ __list_splice_init_rcu(list, head, head->next, sync);
+}
+
+/**
+ * list_splice_tail_init_rcu - splice an RCU-protected list into an existing
+ * list, designed for queues.
+ * @list: the RCU-protected list to splice
+ * @head: the place in the existing list to splice the first list into
+ * @sync: function to sync: synchronize_rcu(), synchronize_sched(), ...
+ */
+static inline void list_splice_tail_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
+ struct list_head *head,
+ void (*sync)(void))
+{
+ if (!list_empty(list))
+ __list_splice_init_rcu(list, head->prev, head, sync);
}
/**
@@ -305,6 +334,42 @@ static inline void list_splice_init_rcu(struct list_head *list,
pos = list_entry_rcu(pos->member.next, typeof(*pos), member))
/**
+ * list_entry_lockless - get the struct for this entry
+ * @ptr: the &struct list_head pointer.
+ * @type: the type of the struct this is embedded in.
+ * @member: the name of the list_head within the struct.
+ *
+ * This primitive may safely run concurrently with the _rcu list-mutation
+ * primitives such as list_add_rcu(), but requires some implicit RCU
+ * read-side guarding. One example is running within a special
+ * exception-time environment where preemption is disabled and where
+ * lockdep cannot be invoked (in which case updaters must use RCU-sched,
+ * as in synchronize_sched(), call_rcu_sched(), and friends). Another
+ * example is when items are added to the list, but never deleted.
+ */
+#define list_entry_lockless(ptr, type, member) \
+ container_of((typeof(ptr))lockless_dereference(ptr), type, member)
+
+/**
+ * list_for_each_entry_lockless - iterate over rcu list of given type
+ * @pos: the type * to use as a loop cursor.
+ * @head: the head for your list.
+ * @member: the name of the list_struct within the struct.
+ *
+ * This primitive may safely run concurrently with the _rcu list-mutation
+ * primitives such as list_add_rcu(), but requires some implicit RCU
+ * read-side guarding. One example is running within a special
+ * exception-time environment where preemption is disabled and where
+ * lockdep cannot be invoked (in which case updaters must use RCU-sched,
+ * as in synchronize_sched(), call_rcu_sched(), and friends). Another
+ * example is when items are added to the list, but never deleted.
+ */
+#define list_for_each_entry_lockless(pos, head, member) \
+ for (pos = list_entry_lockless((head)->next, typeof(*pos), member); \
+ &pos->member != (head); \
+ pos = list_entry_lockless(pos->member.next, typeof(*pos), member))
+
+/**
* list_for_each_entry_continue_rcu - continue iteration over list of given type
* @pos: the type * to use as a loop cursor.
* @head: the head for your list.
diff --git a/include/linux/rcupdate.h b/include/linux/rcupdate.h
index a0189ba67fde..14e6f47ee16f 100644
--- a/include/linux/rcupdate.h
+++ b/include/linux/rcupdate.h
@@ -48,10 +48,17 @@
#include <asm/barrier.h>
+#ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
extern int rcu_expedited; /* for sysctl */
+extern int rcu_normal; /* also for sysctl */
+#endif /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
#ifdef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
/* Tiny RCU doesn't expedite, as its purpose in life is instead to be tiny. */
+static inline bool rcu_gp_is_normal(void) /* Internal RCU use. */
+{
+ return true;
+}
static inline bool rcu_gp_is_expedited(void) /* Internal RCU use. */
{
return false;
@@ -65,6 +72,7 @@ static inline void rcu_unexpedite_gp(void)
{
}
#else /* #ifdef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
+bool rcu_gp_is_normal(void); /* Internal RCU use. */
bool rcu_gp_is_expedited(void); /* Internal RCU use. */
void rcu_expedite_gp(void);
void rcu_unexpedite_gp(void);
@@ -321,7 +329,6 @@ static inline int rcu_preempt_depth(void)
/* Internal to kernel */
void rcu_init(void);
-void rcu_end_inkernel_boot(void);
void rcu_sched_qs(void);
void rcu_bh_qs(void);
void rcu_check_callbacks(int user);
@@ -329,6 +336,12 @@ struct notifier_block;
int rcu_cpu_notify(struct notifier_block *self,
unsigned long action, void *hcpu);
+#ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
+void rcu_end_inkernel_boot(void);
+#else /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
+static inline void rcu_end_inkernel_boot(void) { }
+#endif /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
+
#ifdef CONFIG_RCU_STALL_COMMON
void rcu_sysrq_start(void);
void rcu_sysrq_end(void);
@@ -379,9 +392,9 @@ static inline void rcu_init_nohz(void)
*/
#define RCU_NONIDLE(a) \
do { \
- rcu_irq_enter(); \
+ rcu_irq_enter_irqson(); \
do { a; } while (0); \
- rcu_irq_exit(); \
+ rcu_irq_exit_irqson(); \
} while (0)
/*
@@ -741,7 +754,7 @@ static inline void rcu_preempt_sleep_check(void)
* The tracing infrastructure traces RCU (we want that), but unfortunately
* some of the RCU checks causes tracing to lock up the system.
*
- * The tracing version of rcu_dereference_raw() must not call
+ * The no-tracing version of rcu_dereference_raw() must not call
* rcu_read_lock_held().
*/
#define rcu_dereference_raw_notrace(p) __rcu_dereference_check((p), 1, __rcu)
diff --git a/include/linux/rcutiny.h b/include/linux/rcutiny.h
index 4c1aaf9cce7b..64809aea661c 100644
--- a/include/linux/rcutiny.h
+++ b/include/linux/rcutiny.h
@@ -181,6 +181,14 @@ static inline void rcu_irq_enter(void)
{
}
+static inline void rcu_irq_exit_irqson(void)
+{
+}
+
+static inline void rcu_irq_enter_irqson(void)
+{
+}
+
static inline void rcu_irq_exit(void)
{
}
diff --git a/include/linux/rcutree.h b/include/linux/rcutree.h
index 60d15a080d7c..ad1eda9fa4da 100644
--- a/include/linux/rcutree.h
+++ b/include/linux/rcutree.h
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ void rcu_cpu_stall_reset(void);
/*
* Note a virtualization-based context switch. This is simply a
* wrapper around rcu_note_context_switch(), which allows TINY_RCU
- * to save a few bytes.
+ * to save a few bytes. The caller must have disabled interrupts.
*/
static inline void rcu_virt_note_context_switch(int cpu)
{
@@ -97,6 +97,8 @@ void rcu_idle_enter(void);
void rcu_idle_exit(void);
void rcu_irq_enter(void);
void rcu_irq_exit(void);
+void rcu_irq_enter_irqson(void);
+void rcu_irq_exit_irqson(void);
void exit_rcu(void);
diff --git a/include/linux/tracepoint.h b/include/linux/tracepoint.h
index 696a339c592c..7834a8a8bf1e 100644
--- a/include/linux/tracepoint.h
+++ b/include/linux/tracepoint.h
@@ -171,8 +171,8 @@ extern void syscall_unregfunc(void);
TP_PROTO(data_proto), \
TP_ARGS(data_args), \
TP_CONDITION(cond), \
- rcu_irq_enter(), \
- rcu_irq_exit()); \
+ rcu_irq_enter_irqson(), \
+ rcu_irq_exit_irqson()); \
}
#else
#define __DECLARE_TRACE_RCU(name, proto, args, cond, data_proto, data_args)
diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
index 9e64d7097f1a..c6ebefafa496 100644
--- a/init/main.c
+++ b/init/main.c
@@ -943,6 +943,8 @@ static int __ref kernel_init(void *unused)
flush_delayed_fput();
+ rcu_end_inkernel_boot();
+
if (ramdisk_execute_command) {
ret = run_init_process(ramdisk_execute_command);
if (!ret)
diff --git a/kernel/ksysfs.c b/kernel/ksysfs.c
index e83b26464061..152da4a48867 100644
--- a/kernel/ksysfs.c
+++ b/kernel/ksysfs.c
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
#include <linux/capability.h>
#include <linux/compiler.h>
-#include <linux/rcupdate.h> /* rcu_expedited */
+#include <linux/rcupdate.h> /* rcu_expedited and rcu_normal */
#define KERNEL_ATTR_RO(_name) \
static struct kobj_attribute _name##_attr = __ATTR_RO(_name)
@@ -144,11 +144,12 @@ static ssize_t fscaps_show(struct kobject *kobj,
}
KERNEL_ATTR_RO(fscaps);
+#ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
int rcu_expedited;
static ssize_t rcu_expedited_show(struct kobject *kobj,
struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
{
- return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", rcu_expedited);
+ return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", READ_ONCE(rcu_expedited));
}
static ssize_t rcu_expedited_store(struct kobject *kobj,
struct kobj_attribute *attr,
@@ -161,6 +162,24 @@ static ssize_t rcu_expedited_store(struct kobject *kobj,
}
KERNEL_ATTR_RW(rcu_expedited);
+int rcu_normal;
+static ssize_t rcu_normal_show(struct kobject *kobj,
+ struct kobj_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+ return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", READ_ONCE(rcu_normal));
+}
+static ssize_t rcu_normal_store(struct kobject *kobj,
+ struct kobj_attribute *attr,
+ const char *buf, size_t count)
+{
+ if (kstrtoint(buf, 0, &rcu_normal))
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ return count;
+}
+KERNEL_ATTR_RW(rcu_normal);
+#endif /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
+
/*
* Make /sys/kernel/notes give the raw contents of our kernel .notes section.
*/
@@ -202,7 +221,10 @@ static struct attribute * kernel_attrs[] = {
&kexec_crash_size_attr.attr,
&vmcoreinfo_attr.attr,
#endif
+#ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
&rcu_expedited_attr.attr,
+ &rcu_normal_attr.attr,
+#endif
NULL
};
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/srcu.c b/kernel/rcu/srcu.c
index a63a1ea5a41b..9b9cdd549caa 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/srcu.c
+++ b/kernel/rcu/srcu.c
@@ -489,7 +489,7 @@ static void __synchronize_srcu(struct srcu_struct *sp, int trycount)
*/
void synchronize_srcu(struct srcu_struct *sp)
{
- __synchronize_srcu(sp, rcu_gp_is_expedited()
+ __synchronize_srcu(sp, (rcu_gp_is_expedited() && !rcu_gp_is_normal())
? SYNCHRONIZE_SRCU_EXP_TRYCOUNT
: SYNCHRONIZE_SRCU_TRYCOUNT);
}
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.c b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
index 316354109734..e41dd4131f7a 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/tree.c
+++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.c
@@ -68,10 +68,6 @@ MODULE_ALIAS("rcutree");
/* Data structures. */
-static struct lock_class_key rcu_node_class[RCU_NUM_LVLS];
-static struct lock_class_key rcu_fqs_class[RCU_NUM_LVLS];
-static struct lock_class_key rcu_exp_class[RCU_NUM_LVLS];
-
/*
* In order to export the rcu_state name to the tracing tools, it
* needs to be added in the __tracepoint_string section.
@@ -246,24 +242,17 @@ static int rcu_gp_in_progress(struct rcu_state *rsp)
*/
void rcu_sched_qs(void)
{
- unsigned long flags;
-
- if (__this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.s)) {
- trace_rcu_grace_period(TPS("rcu_sched"),
- __this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.gpnum),
- TPS("cpuqs"));
- __this_cpu_write(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.norm, false);
- if (!__this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.exp))
- return;
- local_irq_save(flags);
- if (__this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.exp)) {
- __this_cpu_write(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.exp, false);
- rcu_report_exp_rdp(&rcu_sched_state,
- this_cpu_ptr(&rcu_sched_data),
- true);
- }
- local_irq_restore(flags);
- }
+ if (!__this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.s))
+ return;
+ trace_rcu_grace_period(TPS("rcu_sched"),
+ __this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.gpnum),
+ TPS("cpuqs"));
+ __this_cpu_write(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.norm, false);
+ if (!__this_cpu_read(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.exp))
+ return;
+ __this_cpu_write(rcu_sched_data.cpu_no_qs.b.exp, false);
+ rcu_report_exp_rdp(&rcu_sched_state,
+ this_cpu_ptr(&rcu_sched_data), true);
}
void rcu_bh_qs(void)
@@ -300,17 +289,16 @@ EXPORT_PER_CPU_SYMBOL_GPL(rcu_qs_ctr);
* We inform the RCU core by emulating a zero-duration dyntick-idle
* period, which we in turn do by incrementing the ->dynticks counter
* by two.
+ *
+ * The caller must have disabled interrupts.
*/
static void rcu_momentary_dyntick_idle(void)
{
- unsigned long flags;
struct rcu_data *rdp;
struct rcu_dynticks *rdtp;
int resched_mask;
struct rcu_state *rsp;
- local_irq_save(flags);
-
/*
* Yes, we can lose flag-setting operations. This is OK, because
* the flag will be set again after some delay.
@@ -340,13 +328,12 @@ static void rcu_momentary_dyntick_idle(void)
smp_mb__after_atomic(); /* Later stuff after QS. */
break;
}
- local_irq_restore(flags);
}
/*
* Note a context switch. This is a quiescent state for RCU-sched,
* and requires special handling for preemptible RCU.
- * The caller must have disabled preemption.
+ * The caller must have disabled interrupts.
*/
void rcu_note_context_switch(void)
{
@@ -376,9 +363,14 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(rcu_note_context_switch);
*/
void rcu_all_qs(void)
{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
barrier(); /* Avoid RCU read-side critical sections leaking down. */
- if (unlikely(raw_cpu_read(rcu_sched_qs_mask)))
+ if (unlikely(raw_cpu_read(rcu_sched_qs_mask))) {
+ local_irq_save(flags);
rcu_momentary_dyntick_idle();
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+ }
this_cpu_inc(rcu_qs_ctr);
barrier(); /* Avoid RCU read-side critical sections leaking up. */
}
@@ -605,25 +597,25 @@ static int rcu_future_needs_gp(struct rcu_state *rsp)
* The caller must have disabled interrupts to prevent races with
* normal callback registry.
*/
-static int
+static bool
cpu_needs_another_gp(struct rcu_state *rsp, struct rcu_data *rdp)
{
int i;
if (rcu_gp_in_progress(rsp))
- return 0; /* No, a grace period is already in progress. */
+ return false; /* No, a grace period is already in progress. */
if (rcu_future_needs_gp(rsp))
- return 1; /* Yes, a no-CBs CPU needs one. */
+ return true; /* Yes, a no-CBs CPU needs one. */
if (!rdp->nxttail[RCU_NEXT_TAIL])
- return 0; /* No, this is a no-CBs (or offline) CPU. */
+ return false; /* No, this is a no-CBs (or offline) CPU. */
if (*rdp->nxttail[RCU_NEXT_READY_TAIL])
- return 1; /* Yes, this CPU has newly registered callbacks. */
+ return true; /* Yes, CPU has newly registered callbacks. */
for (i = RCU_WAIT_TAIL; i < RCU_NEXT_TAIL; i++)
if (rdp->nxttail[i - 1] != rdp->nxttail[i] &&
ULONG_CMP_LT(READ_ONCE(rsp->completed),
rdp->nxtcompleted[i]))
- return 1; /* Yes, CBs for future grace period. */
- return 0; /* No grace period needed. */
+ return true; /* Yes, CBs for future grace period. */
+ return false; /* No grace period needed. */
}
/*
@@ -740,7 +732,7 @@ void rcu_user_enter(void)
*
* Exit from an interrupt handler, which might possibly result in entering
* idle mode, in other words, leaving the mode in which read-side critical
- * sections can occur.
+ * sections can occur. The caller must have disabled interrupts.
*
* This code assumes that the idle loop never does anything that might
* result in unbalanced calls to irq_enter() and irq_exit(). If your
@@ -753,11 +745,10 @@ void rcu_user_enter(void)
*/
void rcu_irq_exit(void)
{
- unsigned long flags;
long long oldval;
struct rcu_dynticks *rdtp;
- local_irq_save(flags);
+ RCU_LOCKDEP_WARN(!irqs_disabled(), "rcu_irq_exit() invoked with irqs enabled!!!");
rdtp = this_cpu_ptr(&rcu_dynticks);
oldval = rdtp->dynticks_nesting;
rdtp->dynticks_nesting--;
@@ -768,6 +759,17 @@ void rcu_irq_exit(void)
else
rcu_eqs_enter_common(oldval, true);
rcu_sysidle_enter(1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Wrapper for rcu_irq_exit() where interrupts are enabled.
+ */
+void rcu_irq_exit_irqson(void)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ rcu_irq_exit();
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
@@ -865,7 +867,7 @@ void rcu_user_exit(void)
*
* Enter an interrupt handler, which might possibly result in exiting
* idle mode, in other words, entering the mode in which read-side critical
- * sections can occur.
+ * sections can occur. The caller must have disabled interrupts.
*
* Note that the Linux kernel is fully capable of entering an interrupt
* handler that it never exits, for example when doing upcalls to
@@ -881,11 +883,10 @@ void rcu_user_exit(void)
*/
void rcu_irq_enter(void)
{
- unsigned long flags;
struct rcu_dynticks *rdtp;
long long oldval;
- local_irq_save(flags);
+ RCU_LOCKDEP_WARN(!irqs_disabled(), "rcu_irq_enter() invoked with irqs enabled!!!");
rdtp = this_cpu_ptr(&rcu_dynticks);
oldval = rdtp->dynticks_nesting;
rdtp->dynticks_nesting++;
@@ -896,6 +897,17 @@ void rcu_irq_enter(void)
else
rcu_eqs_exit_common(oldval, true);
rcu_sysidle_exit(1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Wrapper for rcu_irq_enter() where interrupts are enabled.
+ */
+void rcu_irq_enter_irqson(void)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ rcu_irq_enter();
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
@@ -1816,9 +1828,9 @@ static void rcu_gp_slow(struct rcu_state *rsp, int delay)
}
/*
- * Initialize a new grace period. Return 0 if no grace period required.
+ * Initialize a new grace period. Return false if no grace period required.
*/
-static int rcu_gp_init(struct rcu_state *rsp)
+static bool rcu_gp_init(struct rcu_state *rsp)
{
unsigned long oldmask;
struct rcu_data *rdp;
@@ -1829,7 +1841,7 @@ static int rcu_gp_init(struct rcu_state *rsp)
if (!READ_ONCE(rsp->gp_flags)) {
/* Spurious wakeup, tell caller to go back to sleep. */
raw_spin_unlock_irq(&rnp->lock);
- return 0;
+ return false;
}
WRITE_ONCE(rsp->gp_flags, 0); /* Clear all flags: New grace period. */
@@ -1839,7 +1851,7 @@ static int rcu_gp_init(struct rcu_state *rsp)
* Not supposed to be able to happen.
*/
raw_spin_unlock_irq(&rnp->lock);
- return 0;
+ return false;
}
/* Advance to a new grace period and initialize state. */
@@ -1931,7 +1943,7 @@ static int rcu_gp_init(struct rcu_state *rsp)
WRITE_ONCE(rsp->gp_activity, jiffies);
}
- return 1;
+ return true;
}
/*
@@ -3361,7 +3373,6 @@ static unsigned long rcu_seq_snap(unsigned long *sp)
{
unsigned long s;
- smp_mb(); /* Caller's modifications seen first by other CPUs. */
s = (READ_ONCE(*sp) + 3) & ~0x1;
smp_mb(); /* Above access must not bleed into critical section. */
return s;
@@ -3388,6 +3399,7 @@ static void rcu_exp_gp_seq_end(struct rcu_state *rsp)
}
static unsigned long rcu_exp_gp_seq_snap(struct rcu_state *rsp)
{
+ smp_mb(); /* Caller's modifications seen first by other CPUs. */
return rcu_seq_snap(&rsp->expedited_sequence);
}
static bool rcu_exp_gp_seq_done(struct rcu_state *rsp, unsigned long s)
@@ -3599,7 +3611,7 @@ static bool sync_exp_work_done(struct rcu_state *rsp, struct rcu_node *rnp,
*/
static struct rcu_node *exp_funnel_lock(struct rcu_state *rsp, unsigned long s)
{
- struct rcu_data *rdp;
+ struct rcu_data *rdp = per_cpu_ptr(rsp->rda, raw_smp_processor_id());
struct rcu_node *rnp0;
struct rcu_node *rnp1 = NULL;
@@ -3613,7 +3625,7 @@ static struct rcu_node *exp_funnel_lock(struct rcu_state *rsp, unsigned long s)
if (!mutex_is_locked(&rnp0->exp_funnel_mutex)) {
if (mutex_trylock(&rnp0->exp_funnel_mutex)) {
if (sync_exp_work_done(rsp, rnp0, NULL,
- &rsp->expedited_workdone0, s))
+ &rdp->expedited_workdone0, s))
return NULL;
return rnp0;
}
@@ -3627,14 +3639,13 @@ static struct rcu_node *exp_funnel_lock(struct rcu_state *rsp, unsigned long s)
* can be inexact, as it is just promoting locality and is not
* strictly needed for correctness.
*/
- rdp = per_cpu_ptr(rsp->rda, raw_smp_processor_id());
- if (sync_exp_work_done(rsp, NULL, NULL, &rsp->expedited_workdone1, s))
+ if (sync_exp_work_done(rsp, NULL, NULL, &rdp->expedited_workdone1, s))
return NULL;
mutex_lock(&rdp->exp_funnel_mutex);
rnp0 = rdp->mynode;
for (; rnp0 != NULL; rnp0 = rnp0->parent) {
if (sync_exp_work_done(rsp, rnp1, rdp,
- &rsp->expedited_workdone2, s))
+ &rdp->expedited_workdone2, s))
return NULL;
mutex_lock(&rnp0->exp_funnel_mutex);
if (rnp1)
@@ -3644,7 +3655,7 @@ static struct rcu_node *exp_funnel_lock(struct rcu_state *rsp, unsigned long s)
rnp1 = rnp0;
}
if (sync_exp_work_done(rsp, rnp1, rdp,
- &rsp->expedited_workdone3, s))
+ &rdp->expedited_workdone3, s))
return NULL;
return rnp1;
}
@@ -3730,24 +3741,22 @@ retry_ipi:
ret = smp_call_function_single(cpu, func, rsp, 0);
if (!ret) {
mask_ofl_ipi &= ~mask;
- } else {
- /* Failed, raced with offline. */
- raw_spin_lock_irqsave_rcu_node(rnp, flags);
- if (cpu_online(cpu) &&
- (rnp->expmask & mask)) {
- raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rnp->lock,
- flags);
- schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(1);
- if (cpu_online(cpu) &&
- (rnp->expmask & mask))
- goto retry_ipi;
- raw_spin_lock_irqsave_rcu_node(rnp,
- flags);
- }
- if (!(rnp->expmask & mask))
- mask_ofl_ipi &= ~mask;
+ continue;
+ }
+ /* Failed, raced with offline. */
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave_rcu_node(rnp, flags);
+ if (cpu_online(cpu) &&
+ (rnp->expmask & mask)) {
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rnp->lock, flags);
+ schedule_timeout_uninterruptible(1);
+ if (cpu_online(cpu) &&
+ (rnp->expmask & mask))
+ goto retry_ipi;
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave_rcu_node(rnp, flags);
}
+ if (!(rnp->expmask & mask))
+ mask_ofl_ipi &= ~mask;
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rnp->lock, flags);
}
/* Report quiescent states for those that went offline. */
mask_ofl_test |= mask_ofl_ipi;
@@ -3762,6 +3771,7 @@ static void synchronize_sched_expedited_wait(struct rcu_state *rsp)
unsigned long jiffies_stall;
unsigned long jiffies_start;
unsigned long mask;
+ int ndetected;
struct rcu_node *rnp;
struct rcu_node *rnp_root = rcu_get_root(rsp);
int ret;
@@ -3774,7 +3784,7 @@ static void synchronize_sched_expedited_wait(struct rcu_state *rsp)
rsp->expedited_wq,
sync_rcu_preempt_exp_done(rnp_root),
jiffies_stall);
- if (ret > 0)
+ if (ret > 0 || sync_rcu_preempt_exp_done(rnp_root))
return;
if (ret < 0) {
/* Hit a signal, disable CPU stall warnings. */
@@ -3784,14 +3794,16 @@ static void synchronize_sched_expedited_wait(struct rcu_state *rsp)
}
pr_err("INFO: %s detected expedited stalls on CPUs/tasks: {",
rsp->name);
+ ndetected = 0;
rcu_for_each_leaf_node(rsp, rnp) {
- (void)rcu_print_task_exp_stall(rnp);
+ ndetected = rcu_print_task_exp_stall(rnp);
mask = 1;
for (cpu = rnp->grplo; cpu <= rnp->grphi; cpu++, mask <<= 1) {
struct rcu_data *rdp;
if (!(rnp->expmask & mask))
continue;
+ ndetected++;
rdp = per_cpu_ptr(rsp->rda, cpu);
pr_cont(" %d-%c%c%c", cpu,
"O."[cpu_online(cpu)],
@@ -3800,8 +3812,23 @@ static void synchronize_sched_expedited_wait(struct rcu_state *rsp)
}
mask <<= 1;
}
- pr_cont(" } %lu jiffies s: %lu\n",
- jiffies - jiffies_start, rsp->expedited_sequence);
+ pr_cont(" } %lu jiffies s: %lu root: %#lx/%c\n",
+ jiffies - jiffies_start, rsp->expedited_sequence,
+ rnp_root->expmask, ".T"[!!rnp_root->exp_tasks]);
+ if (!ndetected) {
+ pr_err("blocking rcu_node structures:");
+ rcu_for_each_node_breadth_first(rsp, rnp) {
+ if (rnp == rnp_root)
+ continue; /* printed unconditionally */
+ if (sync_rcu_preempt_exp_done(rnp))
+ continue;
+ pr_cont(" l=%u:%d-%d:%#lx/%c",
+ rnp->level, rnp->grplo, rnp->grphi,
+ rnp->expmask,
+ ".T"[!!rnp->exp_tasks]);
+ }
+ pr_cont("\n");
+ }
rcu_for_each_leaf_node(rsp, rnp) {
mask = 1;
for (cpu = rnp->grplo; cpu <= rnp->grphi; cpu++, mask <<= 1) {
@@ -3836,6 +3863,16 @@ void synchronize_sched_expedited(void)
struct rcu_node *rnp;
struct rcu_state *rsp = &rcu_sched_state;
+ /* If only one CPU, this is automatically a grace period. */
+ if (rcu_blocking_is_gp())
+ return;
+
+ /* If expedited grace periods are prohibited, fall back to normal. */
+ if (rcu_gp_is_normal()) {
+ wait_rcu_gp(call_rcu_sched);
+ return;
+ }
+
/* Take a snapshot of the sequence number. */
s = rcu_exp_gp_seq_snap(rsp);
@@ -4321,8 +4358,8 @@ static int __init rcu_spawn_gp_kthread(void)
sp.sched_priority = kthread_prio;
sched_setscheduler_nocheck(t, SCHED_FIFO, &sp);
}
- wake_up_process(t);
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rnp->lock, flags);
+ wake_up_process(t);
}
rcu_spawn_nocb_kthreads();
rcu_spawn_boost_kthreads();
@@ -4373,12 +4410,14 @@ static void __init rcu_init_levelspread(int *levelspread, const int *levelcnt)
/*
* Helper function for rcu_init() that initializes one rcu_state structure.
*/
-static void __init rcu_init_one(struct rcu_state *rsp,
- struct rcu_data __percpu *rda)
+static void __init rcu_init_one(struct rcu_state *rsp)
{
static const char * const buf[] = RCU_NODE_NAME_INIT;
static const char * const fqs[] = RCU_FQS_NAME_INIT;
static const char * const exp[] = RCU_EXP_NAME_INIT;
+ static struct lock_class_key rcu_node_class[RCU_NUM_LVLS];
+ static struct lock_class_key rcu_fqs_class[RCU_NUM_LVLS];
+ static struct lock_class_key rcu_exp_class[RCU_NUM_LVLS];
static u8 fl_mask = 0x1;
int levelcnt[RCU_NUM_LVLS]; /* # nodes in each level. */
@@ -4564,8 +4603,8 @@ void __init rcu_init(void)
rcu_bootup_announce();
rcu_init_geometry();
- rcu_init_one(&rcu_bh_state, &rcu_bh_data);
- rcu_init_one(&rcu_sched_state, &rcu_sched_data);
+ rcu_init_one(&rcu_bh_state);
+ rcu_init_one(&rcu_sched_state);
if (dump_tree)
rcu_dump_rcu_node_tree(&rcu_sched_state);
__rcu_init_preempt();
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.h b/kernel/rcu/tree.h
index a3fb6fe94127..83360b4f4352 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/tree.h
+++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.h
@@ -178,6 +178,8 @@ struct rcu_node {
/* beginning of each expedited GP. */
unsigned long expmaskinitnext;
/* Online CPUs for next expedited GP. */
+ /* Any CPU that has ever been online will */
+ /* have its bit set. */
unsigned long grpmask; /* Mask to apply to parent qsmask. */
/* Only one bit will be set in this mask. */
int grplo; /* lowest-numbered CPU or group here. */
@@ -384,6 +386,10 @@ struct rcu_data {
struct rcu_head oom_head;
#endif /* #ifdef CONFIG_RCU_FAST_NO_HZ */
struct mutex exp_funnel_mutex;
+ atomic_long_t expedited_workdone0; /* # done by others #0. */
+ atomic_long_t expedited_workdone1; /* # done by others #1. */
+ atomic_long_t expedited_workdone2; /* # done by others #2. */
+ atomic_long_t expedited_workdone3; /* # done by others #3. */
/* 7) Callback offloading. */
#ifdef CONFIG_RCU_NOCB_CPU
@@ -498,10 +504,6 @@ struct rcu_state {
/* End of fields guarded by barrier_mutex. */
unsigned long expedited_sequence; /* Take a ticket. */
- atomic_long_t expedited_workdone0; /* # done by others #0. */
- atomic_long_t expedited_workdone1; /* # done by others #1. */
- atomic_long_t expedited_workdone2; /* # done by others #2. */
- atomic_long_t expedited_workdone3; /* # done by others #3. */
atomic_long_t expedited_normal; /* # fallbacks to normal. */
atomic_t expedited_need_qs; /* # CPUs left to check in. */
wait_queue_head_t expedited_wq; /* Wait for check-ins. */
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h b/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
index 57ba873d2f18..9467a8b7e756 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
+++ b/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
@@ -63,8 +63,7 @@ static bool __read_mostly rcu_nocb_poll; /* Offload kthread are to poll. */
/*
* Check the RCU kernel configuration parameters and print informative
- * messages about anything out of the ordinary. If you like #ifdef, you
- * will love this function.
+ * messages about anything out of the ordinary.
*/
static void __init rcu_bootup_announce_oddness(void)
{
@@ -147,8 +146,8 @@ static void __init rcu_bootup_announce(void)
* the corresponding expedited grace period will also be the end of the
* normal grace period.
*/
-static void rcu_preempt_ctxt_queue(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp,
- unsigned long flags) __releases(rnp->lock)
+static void rcu_preempt_ctxt_queue(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp)
+ __releases(rnp->lock) /* But leaves rrupts disabled. */
{
int blkd_state = (rnp->gp_tasks ? RCU_GP_TASKS : 0) +
(rnp->exp_tasks ? RCU_EXP_TASKS : 0) +
@@ -236,7 +235,7 @@ static void rcu_preempt_ctxt_queue(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp,
rnp->gp_tasks = &t->rcu_node_entry;
if (!rnp->exp_tasks && (blkd_state & RCU_EXP_BLKD))
rnp->exp_tasks = &t->rcu_node_entry;
- raw_spin_unlock(&rnp->lock);
+ raw_spin_unlock(&rnp->lock); /* rrupts remain disabled. */
/*
* Report the quiescent state for the expedited GP. This expedited
@@ -251,7 +250,6 @@ static void rcu_preempt_ctxt_queue(struct rcu_node *rnp, struct rcu_data *rdp,
} else {
WARN_ON_ONCE(t->rcu_read_unlock_special.b.exp_need_qs);
}
- local_irq_restore(flags);
}
/*
@@ -286,12 +284,11 @@ static void rcu_preempt_qs(void)
* predating the current grace period drain, in other words, until
* rnp->gp_tasks becomes NULL.
*
- * Caller must disable preemption.
+ * Caller must disable interrupts.
*/
static void rcu_preempt_note_context_switch(void)
{
struct task_struct *t = current;
- unsigned long flags;
struct rcu_data *rdp;
struct rcu_node *rnp;
@@ -301,7 +298,7 @@ static void rcu_preempt_note_context_switch(void)
/* Possibly blocking in an RCU read-side critical section. */
rdp = this_cpu_ptr(rcu_state_p->rda);
rnp = rdp->mynode;
- raw_spin_lock_irqsave_rcu_node(rnp, flags);
+ raw_spin_lock_rcu_node(rnp);
t->rcu_read_unlock_special.b.blocked = true;
t->rcu_blocked_node = rnp;
@@ -317,7 +314,7 @@ static void rcu_preempt_note_context_switch(void)
(rnp->qsmask & rdp->grpmask)
? rnp->gpnum
: rnp->gpnum + 1);
- rcu_preempt_ctxt_queue(rnp, rdp, flags);
+ rcu_preempt_ctxt_queue(rnp, rdp);
} else if (t->rcu_read_lock_nesting < 0 &&
t->rcu_read_unlock_special.s) {
@@ -449,19 +446,13 @@ void rcu_read_unlock_special(struct task_struct *t)
/*
* Remove this task from the list it blocked on. The task
- * now remains queued on the rcu_node corresponding to
- * the CPU it first blocked on, so the first attempt to
- * acquire the task's rcu_node's ->lock will succeed.
- * Keep the loop and add a WARN_ON() out of sheer paranoia.
+ * now remains queued on the rcu_node corresponding to the
+ * CPU it first blocked on, so there is no longer any need
+ * to loop. Retain a WARN_ON_ONCE() out of sheer paranoia.
*/
- for (;;) {
- rnp = t->rcu_blocked_node;
- raw_spin_lock_rcu_node(rnp); /* irqs already disabled. */
- if (rnp == t->rcu_blocked_node)
- break;
- WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
- raw_spin_unlock(&rnp->lock); /* irqs remain disabled. */
- }
+ rnp = t->rcu_blocked_node;
+ raw_spin_lock_rcu_node(rnp); /* irqs already disabled. */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(rnp != t->rcu_blocked_node);
empty_norm = !rcu_preempt_blocked_readers_cgp(rnp);
empty_exp = sync_rcu_preempt_exp_done(rnp);
smp_mb(); /* ensure expedited fastpath sees end of RCU c-s. */
@@ -746,6 +737,12 @@ void synchronize_rcu_expedited(void)
struct rcu_state *rsp = rcu_state_p;
unsigned long s;
+ /* If expedited grace periods are prohibited, fall back to normal. */
+ if (rcu_gp_is_normal()) {
+ wait_rcu_gp(call_rcu);
+ return;
+ }
+
s = rcu_exp_gp_seq_snap(rsp);
rnp_unlock = exp_funnel_lock(rsp, s);
@@ -786,7 +783,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(rcu_barrier);
*/
static void __init __rcu_init_preempt(void)
{
- rcu_init_one(rcu_state_p, rcu_data_p);
+ rcu_init_one(rcu_state_p);
}
/*
@@ -1520,7 +1517,8 @@ static void rcu_prepare_for_idle(void)
struct rcu_state *rsp;
int tne;
- if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_RCU_NOCB_CPU_ALL))
+ if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_RCU_NOCB_CPU_ALL) ||
+ rcu_is_nocb_cpu(smp_processor_id()))
return;
/* Handle nohz enablement switches conservatively. */
@@ -1534,10 +1532,6 @@ static void rcu_prepare_for_idle(void)
if (!tne)
return;
- /* If this is a no-CBs CPU, no callbacks, just return. */
- if (rcu_is_nocb_cpu(smp_processor_id()))
- return;
-
/*
* If a non-lazy callback arrived at a CPU having only lazy
* callbacks, invoke RCU core for the side-effect of recalculating
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree_trace.c b/kernel/rcu/tree_trace.c
index 8efaba870d96..1088e64f01ad 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/tree_trace.c
+++ b/kernel/rcu/tree_trace.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
- * Read-Copy Update tracing for classic implementation
+ * Read-Copy Update tracing for hierarchical implementation.
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
* http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
*
* Copyright IBM Corporation, 2008
+ * Author: Paul E. McKenney
*
* Papers: http://www.rdrop.com/users/paulmck/RCU
*
@@ -33,9 +34,7 @@
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/atomic.h>
#include <linux/bitops.h>
-#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/completion.h>
-#include <linux/moduleparam.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
@@ -183,14 +182,20 @@ static const struct file_operations rcudata_fops = {
static int show_rcuexp(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
{
+ int cpu;
struct rcu_state *rsp = (struct rcu_state *)m->private;
-
+ struct rcu_data *rdp;
+ unsigned long s0 = 0, s1 = 0, s2 = 0, s3 = 0;
+
+ for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
+ rdp = per_cpu_ptr(rsp->rda, cpu);
+ s0 += atomic_long_read(&rdp->expedited_workdone0);
+ s1 += atomic_long_read(&rdp->expedited_workdone1);
+ s2 += atomic_long_read(&rdp->expedited_workdone2);
+ s3 += atomic_long_read(&rdp->expedited_workdone3);
+ }
seq_printf(m, "s=%lu wd0=%lu wd1=%lu wd2=%lu wd3=%lu n=%lu enq=%d sc=%lu\n",
- rsp->expedited_sequence,
- atomic_long_read(&rsp->expedited_workdone0),
- atomic_long_read(&rsp->expedited_workdone1),
- atomic_long_read(&rsp->expedited_workdone2),
- atomic_long_read(&rsp->expedited_workdone3),
+ rsp->expedited_sequence, s0, s1, s2, s3,
atomic_long_read(&rsp->expedited_normal),
atomic_read(&rsp->expedited_need_qs),
rsp->expedited_sequence / 2);
@@ -487,16 +492,4 @@ free_out:
debugfs_remove_recursive(rcudir);
return 1;
}
-
-static void __exit rcutree_trace_cleanup(void)
-{
- debugfs_remove_recursive(rcudir);
-}
-
-
-module_init(rcutree_trace_init);
-module_exit(rcutree_trace_cleanup);
-
-MODULE_AUTHOR("Paul E. McKenney");
-MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Read-Copy Update tracing for hierarchical implementation");
-MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
+device_initcall(rcutree_trace_init);
diff --git a/kernel/rcu/update.c b/kernel/rcu/update.c
index 5f748c5a40f0..76b94e19430b 100644
--- a/kernel/rcu/update.c
+++ b/kernel/rcu/update.c
@@ -60,7 +60,12 @@ MODULE_ALIAS("rcupdate");
#endif
#define MODULE_PARAM_PREFIX "rcupdate."
+#ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
module_param(rcu_expedited, int, 0);
+module_param(rcu_normal, int, 0);
+static int rcu_normal_after_boot;
+module_param(rcu_normal_after_boot, int, 0);
+#endif /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
#if defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC) && defined(CONFIG_PREEMPT_COUNT)
/**
@@ -113,6 +118,17 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(rcu_read_lock_sched_held);
#ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU
+/*
+ * Should expedited grace-period primitives always fall back to their
+ * non-expedited counterparts? Intended for use within RCU. Note
+ * that if the user specifies both rcu_expedited and rcu_normal, then
+ * rcu_normal wins.
+ */
+bool rcu_gp_is_normal(void)
+{
+ return READ_ONCE(rcu_normal);
+}
+
static atomic_t rcu_expedited_nesting =
ATOMIC_INIT(IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_RCU_EXPEDITE_BOOT) ? 1 : 0);
@@ -157,8 +173,6 @@ void rcu_unexpedite_gp(void)
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(rcu_unexpedite_gp);
-#endif /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
-
/*
* Inform RCU of the end of the in-kernel boot sequence.
*/
@@ -166,8 +180,12 @@ void rcu_end_inkernel_boot(void)
{
if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_RCU_EXPEDITE_BOOT))
rcu_unexpedite_gp();
+ if (rcu_normal_after_boot)
+ WRITE_ONCE(rcu_normal, 1);
}
+#endif /* #ifndef CONFIG_TINY_RCU */
+
#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_RCU
/*
diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
index 4d568ac9319e..ec72de234feb 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -3085,7 +3085,6 @@ static void __sched notrace __schedule(bool preempt)
cpu = smp_processor_id();
rq = cpu_rq(cpu);
- rcu_note_context_switch();
prev = rq->curr;
/*
@@ -3104,13 +3103,16 @@ static void __sched notrace __schedule(bool preempt)
if (sched_feat(HRTICK))
hrtick_clear(rq);
+ local_irq_disable();
+ rcu_note_context_switch();
+
/*
* Make sure that signal_pending_state()->signal_pending() below
* can't be reordered with __set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE)
* done by the caller to avoid the race with signal_wake_up().
*/
smp_mb__before_spinlock();
- raw_spin_lock_irq(&rq->lock);
+ raw_spin_lock(&rq->lock);
lockdep_pin_lock(&rq->lock);
rq->clock_skip_update <<= 1; /* promote REQ to ACT */
diff --git a/lib/list_debug.c b/lib/list_debug.c
index c24c2f7e296f..3859bf63561c 100644
--- a/lib/list_debug.c
+++ b/lib/list_debug.c
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ void __list_add(struct list_head *new,
next->prev = new;
new->next = next;
new->prev = prev;
- prev->next = new;
+ WRITE_ONCE(prev->next, new);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__list_add);