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2016-02-18ipc/shm: handle removed segments gracefully in shm_mmap()Kirill A. Shutemov-10/+43
remap_file_pages(2) emulation can reach file which represents removed IPC ID as long as a memory segment is mapped. It breaks expectations of IPC subsystem. Test case (rewritten to be more human readable, originally autogenerated by syzkaller[1]): #define _GNU_SOURCE #include <stdlib.h> #include <sys/ipc.h> #include <sys/mman.h> #include <sys/shm.h> #define PAGE_SIZE 4096 int main() { int id; void *p; id = shmget(IPC_PRIVATE, 3 * PAGE_SIZE, 0); p = shmat(id, NULL, 0); shmctl(id, IPC_RMID, NULL); remap_file_pages(p, 3 * PAGE_SIZE, 0, 7, 0); return 0; } The patch changes shm_mmap() and code around shm_lock() to propagate locking error back to caller of shm_mmap(). [1] http://github.com/google/syzkaller Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Reported-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2016-01-20ipc/shm.c: is_file_shm_hugepages() can be booleanYaowei Bai-1/+1
Make is_file_shm_hugepages() return bool to improve readability due to this particular function only using either one or zero as its return value. No functional change. Signed-off-by: Yaowei Bai <baiyaowei@cmss.chinamobile.com> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-09-30Initialize msg/shm IPC objects before doing ipc_addid()Linus Torvalds-6/+7
As reported by Dmitry Vyukov, we really shouldn't do ipc_addid() before having initialized the IPC object state. Yes, we initialize the IPC object in a locked state, but with all the lockless RCU lookup work, that IPC object lock no longer means that the state cannot be seen. We already did this for the IPC semaphore code (see commit e8577d1f0329: "ipc/sem.c: fully initialize sem_array before making it visible") but we clearly forgot about msg and shm. Reported-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de> Cc: stable@vger.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-09-10ipc: convert invalid scenarios to use WARN_ONDavidlohr Bueso-2/+2
Considering Linus' past rants about the (ab)use of BUG in the kernel, I took a look at how we deal with such calls in ipc. Given that any errors or corruption in ipc code are most likely contained within the set of processes participating in the broken mechanisms, there aren't really many strong fatal system failure scenarios that would require a BUG call. Also, if something is seriously wrong, ipc might not be the place for such a BUG either. 1. For example, recently, a customer hit one of these BUG_ONs in shm after failing shm_lock(). A busted ID imho does not merit a BUG_ON, and WARN would have been better. 2. MSG_COPY functionality of posix msgrcv(2) for checkpoint/restore. I don't see how we can hit this anyway -- at least it should be IS_ERR. The 'copy' arg from do_msgrcv is always set by calling prepare_copy() first and foremost. We could also probably drop this check altogether. Either way, it does not merit a BUG_ON. 3. No ->fault() callback for the fs getting the corresponding page -- seems selfish to make the system unusable. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-08-07ipc: use private shmem or hugetlbfs inodes for shm segments.Stephen Smalley-1/+1
The shm implementation internally uses shmem or hugetlbfs inodes for shm segments. As these inodes are never directly exposed to userspace and only accessed through the shm operations which are already hooked by security modules, mark the inodes with the S_PRIVATE flag so that inode security initialization and permission checking is skipped. This was motivated by the following lockdep warning: ====================================================== [ INFO: possible circular locking dependency detected ] 4.2.0-0.rc3.git0.1.fc24.x86_64+debug #1 Tainted: G W ------------------------------------------------------- httpd/1597 is trying to acquire lock: (&ids->rwsem){+++++.}, at: shm_close+0x34/0x130 but task is already holding lock: (&mm->mmap_sem){++++++}, at: SyS_shmdt+0x4b/0x180 which lock already depends on the new lock. the existing dependency chain (in reverse order) is: -> #3 (&mm->mmap_sem){++++++}: lock_acquire+0xc7/0x270 __might_fault+0x7a/0xa0 filldir+0x9e/0x130 xfs_dir2_block_getdents.isra.12+0x198/0x1c0 [xfs] xfs_readdir+0x1b4/0x330 [xfs] xfs_file_readdir+0x2b/0x30 [xfs] iterate_dir+0x97/0x130 SyS_getdents+0x91/0x120 entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x12/0x76 -> #2 (&xfs_dir_ilock_class){++++.+}: lock_acquire+0xc7/0x270 down_read_nested+0x57/0xa0 xfs_ilock+0x167/0x350 [xfs] xfs_ilock_attr_map_shared+0x38/0x50 [xfs] xfs_attr_get+0xbd/0x190 [xfs] xfs_xattr_get+0x3d/0x70 [xfs] generic_getxattr+0x4f/0x70 inode_doinit_with_dentry+0x162/0x670 sb_finish_set_opts+0xd9/0x230 selinux_set_mnt_opts+0x35c/0x660 superblock_doinit+0x77/0xf0 delayed_superblock_init+0x10/0x20 iterate_supers+0xb3/0x110 selinux_complete_init+0x2f/0x40 security_load_policy+0x103/0x600 sel_write_load+0xc1/0x750 __vfs_write+0x37/0x100 vfs_write+0xa9/0x1a0 SyS_write+0x58/0xd0 entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x12/0x76 ... Signed-off-by: Stephen Smalley <sds@tycho.nsa.gov> Reported-by: Morten Stevens <mstevens@fedoraproject.org> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Acked-by: Paul Moore <paul@paul-moore.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net> Cc: Prarit Bhargava <prarit@redhat.com> Cc: Eric Paris <eparis@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-06-30ipc: rename ipc_obtain_objectDavidlohr Bueso-1/+1
... to ipc_obtain_object_idr, which is more meaningful and makes the code slightly easier to follow. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-06-30ipc,shm: move BUG_ON check into shm_lockDavidlohr Bueso-5/+5
Upon every shm_lock call, we BUG_ON if an error was returned, indicating racing either in idr or in shm_destroy. Move this logic into the locking. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: simplify code] Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-04-26Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-1/+1
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs Pull fourth vfs update from Al Viro: "d_inode() annotations from David Howells (sat in for-next since before the beginning of merge window) + four assorted fixes" * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs: RCU pathwalk breakage when running into a symlink overmounting something fix I_DIO_WAKEUP definition direct-io: only inc/dec inode->i_dio_count for file systems fs/9p: fix readdir() VFS: assorted d_backing_inode() annotations VFS: fs/inode.c helpers: d_inode() annotations VFS: fs/cachefiles: d_backing_inode() annotations VFS: fs library helpers: d_inode() annotations VFS: assorted weird filesystems: d_inode() annotations VFS: normal filesystems (and lustre): d_inode() annotations VFS: security/: d_inode() annotations VFS: security/: d_backing_inode() annotations VFS: net/: d_inode() annotations VFS: net/unix: d_backing_inode() annotations VFS: kernel/: d_inode() annotations VFS: audit: d_backing_inode() annotations VFS: Fix up some ->d_inode accesses in the chelsio driver VFS: Cachefiles should perform fs modifications on the top layer only VFS: AF_UNIX sockets should call mknod on the top layer only
2015-04-15ipc: remove use of seq_printf return valueJoe Perches-20/+22
The seq_printf return value, because it's frequently misused, will eventually be converted to void. See: commit 1f33c41c03da ("seq_file: Rename seq_overflow() to seq_has_overflowed() and make public") Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-04-15VFS: assorted weird filesystems: d_inode() annotationsDavid Howells-1/+1
Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2014-12-13shmdt: use i_size_read() instead of ->i_sizeDave Hansen-2/+3
Andrew Morton noted http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20141104142027.a7a0d010772d84560b445f59@linux-foundation.org that the shmdt uses inode->i_size outside of i_mutex being held. There is one more case in shm.c in shm_destroy(). This converts both users over to use i_size_read(). Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-12-13ipc/shm.c: fix overly aggressive shmdt() when calls span multiple segmentsDave Hansen-5/+13
This is a highly-contrived scenario. But, a single shmdt() call can be induced in to unmapping memory from mulitple shm segments. Example code is here: http://www.sr71.net/~dave/intel/shmfun.c The fix is pretty simple: Record the 'struct file' for the first VMA we encounter and then stick to it. Decline to unmap anything not from the same file and thus the same segment. I found this by inspection and the odds of anyone hitting this in practice are pretty darn small. Lightly tested, but it's a pretty small patch. Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-10-14ipc/shm: kill the historical/wrong mm->start_stack checkOleg Nesterov-7/+0
do_shmat() is the only user of ->start_stack (proc just reports its value), and this check looks ugly and wrong. The reason for this check is not clear at all, and it wrongly assumes that the stack can only grow down. But the main problem is that in general mm->start_stack has nothing to do with stack_vma->vm_start. Not only the application can switch to another stack and even unmap this area, setup_arg_pages() expands the stack without updating mm->start_stack during exec(). This means that in the likely case "addr > start_stack - size - PAGE_SIZE * 5" is simply impossible after find_vma_intersection() == F, or the stack can't grow anyway because of RLIMIT_STACK. Many thanks to Hugh for his explanations. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <gorcunov@gmail.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-08-08shm: allow exit_shm in parallel if only marking orphansJack Miller-32/+35
If shm_rmid_force (the default state) is not set then the shmids are only marked as orphaned and does not require any add, delete, or locking of the tree structure. Seperate the sysctl on and off case, and only obtain the read lock. The newly added list head can be deleted under the read lock because we are only called with current and will only change the semids allocated by this task and not manipulate the list. This commit assumes that up_read includes a sufficient memory barrier for the writes to be seen my others that later obtain a write lock. Signed-off-by: Milton Miller <miltonm@bga.com> Signed-off-by: Jack Miller <millerjo@us.ibm.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-08-08shm: make exit_shm work proportional to task activityJack Miller-11/+11
This is small set of patches our team has had kicking around for a few versions internally that fixes tasks getting hung on shm_exit when there are many threads hammering it at once. Anton wrote a simple test to cause the issue: http://ozlabs.org/~anton/junkcode/bust_shm_exit.c Before applying this patchset, this test code will cause either hanging tracebacks or pthread out of memory errors. After this patchset, it will still produce output like: root@somehost:~# ./bust_shm_exit 1024 160 ... INFO: rcu_sched detected stalls on CPUs/tasks: {} (detected by 116, t=2111 jiffies, g=241, c=240, q=7113) INFO: Stall ended before state dump start ... But the task will continue to run along happily, so we consider this an improvement over hanging, even if it's a bit noisy. This patch (of 3): exit_shm obtains the ipc_ns shm rwsem for write and holds it while it walks every shared memory segment in the namespace. Thus the amount of work is related to the number of shm segments in the namespace not the number of segments that might need to be cleaned. In addition, this occurs after the task has been notified the thread has exited, so the number of tasks waiting for the ns shm rwsem can grow without bound until memory is exausted. Add a list to the task struct of all shmids allocated by this task. Init the list head in copy_process. Use the ns->rwsem for locking. Add segments after id is added, remove before removing from id. On unshare of NEW_IPCNS orphan any ids as if the task had exited, similar to handling of semaphore undo. I chose a define for the init sequence since its a simple list init, otherwise it would require a function call to avoid include loops between the semaphore code and the task struct. Converting the list_del to list_del_init for the unshare cases would remove the exit followed by init, but I left it blow up if not inited. Signed-off-by: Milton Miller <miltonm@bga.com> Signed-off-by: Jack Miller <millerjo@us.ibm.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: Anton Blanchard <anton@samba.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06ipc/shm.c: check for integer overflow during shmget.Manfred Spraul-0/+3
SHMMAX is the upper limit for the size of a shared memory segment, counted in bytes. The actual allocation is that size, rounded up to the next full page. Add a check that prevents the creation of segments where the rounded up size causes an integer overflow. Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06ipc/shm.c: check for overflows of shm_totManfred Spraul-1/+2
shm_tot counts the total number of pages used by shm segments. If SHMALL is ULONG_MAX (or nearly ULONG_MAX), then the number can overflow. Subsequent calls to shmctl(,SHM_INFO,) would return wrong values for shm_tot. The patch adds a detection for overflows. Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06ipc/shm.c: check for ulong overflows in shmatManfred Spraul-0/+3
The increase of SHMMAX/SHMALL is a 4 patch series. The change itself is trivial, the only problem are interger overflows. The overflows are not new, but if we make huge values the default, then the code should be free from overflows. SHMMAX: - shmmem_file_setup places a hard limit on the segment size: MAX_LFS_FILESIZE. On 32-bit, the limit is > 1 TB, i.e. 4 GB-1 byte segments are possible. Rounded up to full pages the actual allocated size is 0. --> must be fixed, patch 3 - shmat: - find_vma_intersection does not handle overflows properly. --> must be fixed, patch 1 - the rest is fine, do_mmap_pgoff limits mappings to TASK_SIZE and checks for overflows (i.e.: map 2 GB, starting from addr=2.5GB fails). SHMALL: - after creating 8192 segments size (1L<<63)-1, shm_tot overflows and returns 0. --> must be fixed, patch 2. Userspace: - Obviously, there could be overflows in userspace. There is nothing we can do, only use values smaller than ULONG_MAX. I ended with "ULONG_MAX - 1L<<24": - TASK_SIZE cannot be used because it is the size of the current task. Could be 4G if it's a 32-bit task on a 64-bit kernel. - The maximum size is not standardized across archs: I found TASK_MAX_SIZE, TASK_SIZE_MAX and TASK_SIZE_64. - Just in case some arch revives a 4G/4G split, nearly ULONG_MAX is a valid segment size. - Using "0" as a magic value for infinity is even worse, because right now 0 means 0, i.e. fail all allocations. This patch (of 4): find_vma_intersection() does not work as intended if addr+size overflows. The patch adds a manual check before the call to find_vma_intersection. Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Acked-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06ipc, kernel: clear whitespacePaul McQuade-1/+1
trailing whitespace Signed-off-by: Paul McQuade <paulmcquad@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06ipc, kernel: use Linux headersPaul McQuade-1/+1
Use #include <linux/uaccess.h> instead of <asm/uaccess.h> Use #include <linux/types.h> instead of <asm/types.h> Signed-off-by: Paul McQuade <paulmcquad@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06ipc: constify ipc_opsMathias Krause-5/+5
There is no need to recreate the very same ipc_ops structure on every kernel entry for msgget/semget/shmget. Just declare it static and be done with it. While at it, constify it as we don't modify the structure at runtime. Found in the PaX patch, written by the PaX Team. Signed-off-by: Mathias Krause <minipli@googlemail.com> Cc: PaX Team <pageexec@freemail.hu> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-27ipc: standardize code commentsDavidlohr Bueso-1/+0
IPC commenting style is all over the place, *specially* in util.c. This patch orders things a bit. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Aswin Chandramouleeswaran <aswin@hp.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-27ipc: whitespace cleanupManfred Spraul-16/+16
The ipc code does not adhere the typical linux coding style. This patch fixes lots of simple whitespace errors. - mostly autogenerated by scripts/checkpatch.pl -f --fix \ --types=pointer_location,spacing,space_before_tab - one manual fixup (keep structure members tab-aligned) - removal of additional space_before_tab that were not found by --fix Tested with some of my msg and sem test apps. Andrew: Could you include it in -mm and move it towards Linus' tree? Signed-off-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Suggested-by: Li Bin <huawei.libin@huawei.com> Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Acked-by: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-01-27ipc: introduce ipc_valid_object() helper to sort out IPC_RMID racesRafael Aquini-8/+8
After the locking semantics for the SysV IPC API got improved, a couple of IPC_RMID race windows were opened because we ended up dropping the 'kern_ipc_perm.deleted' check performed way down in ipc_lock(). The spotted races got sorted out by re-introducing the old test within the racy critical sections. This patch introduces ipc_valid_object() to consolidate the way we cope with IPC_RMID races by using the same abstraction across the API implementation. Signed-off-by: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com> Reviewed-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-11-21ipc,shm: correct error return value in shmctl (SHM_UNLOCK)Jesper Nilsson-3/+6
Commit 2caacaa82a51 ("ipc,shm: shorten critical region for shmctl") restructured the ipc shm to shorten critical region, but introduced a path where the return value could be -EPERM, even if the operation actually was performed. Before the commit, the err return value was reset by the return value from security_shm_shmctl() after the if (!ns_capable(...)) statement. Now, we still exit the if statement with err set to -EPERM, and in the case of SHM_UNLOCK, it is not reset at all, and used as the return value from shmctl. To fix this, we only set err when errors occur, leaving the fallthrough case alone. Signed-off-by: Jesper Nilsson <jesper.nilsson@axis.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [3.12.x] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-11-21ipc,shm: fix shm_file deletion racesGreg Thelen-5/+23
When IPC_RMID races with other shm operations there's potential for use-after-free of the shm object's associated file (shm_file). Here's the race before this patch: TASK 1 TASK 2 ------ ------ shm_rmid() ipc_lock_object() shmctl() shp = shm_obtain_object_check() shm_destroy() shum_unlock() fput(shp->shm_file) ipc_lock_object() shmem_lock(shp->shm_file) <OOPS> The oops is caused because shm_destroy() calls fput() after dropping the ipc_lock. fput() clears the file's f_inode, f_path.dentry, and f_path.mnt, which causes various NULL pointer references in task 2. I reliably see the oops in task 2 if with shmlock, shmu This patch fixes the races by: 1) set shm_file=NULL in shm_destroy() while holding ipc_object_lock(). 2) modify at risk operations to check shm_file while holding ipc_object_lock(). Example workloads, which each trigger oops... Workload 1: while true; do id=$(shmget 1 4096) shm_rmid $id & shmlock $id & wait done The oops stack shows accessing NULL f_inode due to racing fput: _raw_spin_lock shmem_lock SyS_shmctl Workload 2: while true; do id=$(shmget 1 4096) shmat $id 4096 & shm_rmid $id & wait done The oops stack is similar to workload 1 due to NULL f_inode: touch_atime shmem_mmap shm_mmap mmap_region do_mmap_pgoff do_shmat SyS_shmat Workload 3: while true; do id=$(shmget 1 4096) shmlock $id shm_rmid $id & shmunlock $id & wait done The oops stack shows second fput tripping on an NULL f_inode. The first fput() completed via from shm_destroy(), but a racing thread did a get_file() and queued this fput(): locks_remove_flock __fput ____fput task_work_run do_notify_resume int_signal Fixes: c2c737a0461e ("ipc,shm: shorten critical region for shmat") Fixes: 2caacaa82a51 ("ipc,shm: shorten critical region for shmctl") Signed-off-by: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com> Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> # 3.10.17+ 3.11.6+ Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-24ipc: fix race with LSMsDavidlohr Bueso-5/+12
Currently, IPC mechanisms do security and auditing related checks under RCU. However, since security modules can free the security structure, for example, through selinux_[sem,msg_queue,shm]_free_security(), we can race if the structure is freed before other tasks are done with it, creating a use-after-free condition. Manfred illustrates this nicely, for instance with shared mem and selinux: -> do_shmat calls rcu_read_lock() -> do_shmat calls shm_object_check(). Checks that the object is still valid - but doesn't acquire any locks. Then it returns. -> do_shmat calls security_shm_shmat (e.g. selinux_shm_shmat) -> selinux_shm_shmat calls ipc_has_perm() -> ipc_has_perm accesses ipc_perms->security shm_close() -> shm_close acquires rw_mutex & shm_lock -> shm_close calls shm_destroy -> shm_destroy calls security_shm_free (e.g. selinux_shm_free_security) -> selinux_shm_free_security calls ipc_free_security(&shp->shm_perm) -> ipc_free_security calls kfree(ipc_perms->security) This patch delays the freeing of the security structures after all RCU readers are done. Furthermore it aligns the security life cycle with that of the rest of IPC - freeing them based on the reference counter. For situations where we need not free security, the current behavior is kept. Linus states: "... the old behavior was suspect for another reason too: having the security blob go away from under a user sounds like it could cause various other problems anyway, so I think the old code was at least _prone_ to bugs even if it didn't have catastrophic behavior." I have tested this patch with IPC testcases from LTP on both my quad-core laptop and on a 64 core NUMA server. In both cases selinux is enabled, and tests pass for both voluntary and forced preemption models. While the mentioned races are theoretical (at least no one as reported them), I wanted to make sure that this new logic doesn't break anything we weren't aware of. Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr@hp.com> Acked-by: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc, shm: drop shm_lock_checkDavidlohr Bueso-11/+0
This function was replaced by a the lockless shm_obtain_object_check(), and no longer has any users. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Cc: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc, shm: guard against non-existant vma in shmdt(2)Davidlohr Bueso-2/+1
When !CONFIG_MMU there's a chance we can derefence a NULL pointer when the VM area isn't found - check the return value of find_vma(). Also, remove the redundant -EINVAL return: retval is set to the proper return code and *only* changed to 0, when we actually unmap the segments. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Cc: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc: rename ids->rw_mutexDavidlohr Bueso-28/+28
Since in some situations the lock can be shared for readers, we shouldn't be calling it a mutex, rename it to rwsem. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: shorten critical region for shmatDavidlohr Bueso-4/+10
Similar to other system calls, acquire the kern_ipc_perm lock after doing the initial permission and security checks. [sasha.levin@oracle.com: dont leave do_shmat with rcu lock held] Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: cleanup do_shmat pastaDavidlohr Bueso-14/+12
Clean up some of the messy do_shmat() spaghetti code, getting rid of out_free and out_put_dentry labels. This makes shortening the critical region of this function in the next patch a little easier to do and read. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: shorten critical region for shmctlDavidlohr Bueso-24/+25
With the *_INFO, *_STAT, IPC_RMID and IPC_SET commands already optimized, deal with the remaining SHM_LOCK and SHM_UNLOCK commands. Take the shm_perm lock after doing the initial auditing and security checks. The rest of the logic remains unchanged. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: make shmctl_nolock locklessDavidlohr Bueso-7/+12
While the INFO cmd doesn't take the ipc lock, the STAT commands do acquire it unnecessarily. We can do the permissions and security checks only holding the rcu lock. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: introduce shmctl_nolockDavidlohr Bueso-18/+39
Similar to semctl and msgctl, when calling msgctl, the *_INFO and *_STAT commands can be performed without acquiring the ipc object. Add a shmctl_nolock() function and move the logic of *_INFO and *_STAT out of msgctl(). Since we are just moving functionality, this change still takes the lock and it will be properly lockless in the next patch. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: shorten critical region in shmctl_downDavidlohr Bueso-4/+6
Instead of holding the ipc lock for the entire function, use the ipcctl_pre_down_nolock and only acquire the lock for specific commands: RMID and SET. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-11ipc,shm: introduce lockless functions to obtain the ipc objectDavidlohr Bueso-0/+20
This is the third and final patchset that deals with reducing the amount of contention we impose on the ipc lock (kern_ipc_perm.lock). These changes mostly deal with shared memory, previous work has already been done for semaphores and message queues: http://lkml.org/lkml/2013/3/20/546 (sems) http://lkml.org/lkml/2013/5/15/584 (mqueues) With these patches applied, a custom shm microbenchmark stressing shmctl doing IPC_STAT with 4 threads a million times, reduces the execution time by 50%. A similar run, this time with IPC_SET, reduces the execution time from 3 mins and 35 secs to 27 seconds. Patches 1-8: replaces blindly taking the ipc lock for a smarter combination of rcu and ipc_obtain_object, only acquiring the spinlock when updating. Patch 9: renames the ids rw_mutex to rwsem, which is what it already was. Patch 10: is a trivial mqueue leftover cleanup Patch 11: adds a brief lock scheme description, requested by Andrew. This patch: Add shm_obtain_object() and shm_obtain_object_check(), which will allow us to get the ipc object without acquiring the lock. Just as with other forms of ipc, these functions are basically wrappers around ipc_obtain_object*(). Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-07-09ipc: move locking out of ipcctl_pre_down_nolockDavidlohr Bueso-6/+17
This function currently acquires both the rw_mutex and the rcu lock on successful lookups, leaving the callers to explicitly unlock them, creating another two level locking situation. Make the callers (including those that still use ipcctl_pre_down()) explicitly lock and unlock the rwsem and rcu lock. Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-07-09ipc: close open coded spin lock callsDavidlohr Bueso-2/+2
Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-07-09ipc: move rcu lock out of ipc_addidDavidlohr Bueso-1/+4
This patchset continues the work that began in the sysv ipc semaphore scaling series, see https://lkml.org/lkml/2013/3/20/546 Just like semaphores used to be, sysv shared memory and msg queues also abuse the ipc lock, unnecessarily holding it for operations such as permission and security checks. This patchset mostly deals with mqueues, and while shared mem can be done in a very similar way, I want to get these patches out in the open first. It also does some pending cleanups, mostly focused on the two level locking we have in ipc code, taking care of ipc_addid() and ipcctl_pre_down_nolock() - yes there are still functions that need to be updated as well. This patch: Make all callers explicitly take and release the RCU read lock. This addresses the two level locking seen in newary(), newseg() and newqueue(). For the last two, explicitly unlock the ipc object and the rcu lock, instead of calling the custom shm_unlock and msg_unlock functions. The next patch will deal with the open coded locking for ->perm.lock Signed-off-by: Davidlohr Bueso <davidlohr.bueso@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-07-09ipc/shmc.c: eliminate ugly 80-col tricksAndrew Morton-2/+2
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-05-09shm: fix null pointer deref when userspace specifies invalid hugepage sizeLi Zefan-1/+7
Dave reported an oops triggered by trinity: BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000008 IP: newseg+0x10d/0x390 PGD cf8c1067 PUD cf8c2067 PMD 0 Oops: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP DEBUG_PAGEALLOC CPU: 2 PID: 7636 Comm: trinity-child2 Not tainted 3.9.0+#67 ... Call Trace: ipcget+0x182/0x380 SyS_shmget+0x5a/0x60 tracesys+0xdd/0xe2 This bug was introduced by commit af73e4d9506d ("hugetlbfs: fix mmap failure in unaligned size request"). Reported-by: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Li Zefan <lizfan@huawei.com> Reviewed-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-05-07hugetlbfs: fix mmap failure in unaligned size requestNaoya Horiguchi-1/+5
The current kernel returns -EINVAL unless a given mmap length is "almost" hugepage aligned. This is because in sys_mmap_pgoff() the given length is passed to vm_mmap_pgoff() as it is without being aligned with hugepage boundary. This is a regression introduced in commit 40716e29243d ("hugetlbfs: fix alignment of huge page requests"), where alignment code is pushed into hugetlb_file_setup() and the variable len in caller side is not changed. To fix this, this patch partially reverts that commit, and adds alignment code in caller side. And it also introduces hstate_sizelog() in order to get proper hstate to specified hugepage size. Addresses https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=56881 [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warning when CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE=n] Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reported-by: <iceman_dvd@yahoo.com> Cc: Steven Truelove <steven.truelove@utoronto.ca> Cc: Jianguo Wu <wujianguo@huawei.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-05-01ipc: sysv shared memory limited to 8TiBRobin Holt-1/+1
Trying to run an application which was trying to put data into half of memory using shmget(), we found that having a shmall value below 8EiB-8TiB would prevent us from using anything more than 8TiB. By setting kernel.shmall greater than 8EiB-8TiB would make the job work. In the newseg() function, ns->shm_tot which, at 8TiB is INT_MAX. ipc/shm.c: 458 static int newseg(struct ipc_namespace *ns, struct ipc_params *params) 459 { ... 465 int numpages = (size + PAGE_SIZE -1) >> PAGE_SHIFT; ... 474 if (ns->shm_tot + numpages > ns->shm_ctlall) 475 return -ENOSPC; [akpm@linux-foundation.org: make ipc/shm.c:newseg()'s numpages size_t, not int] Signed-off-by: Robin Holt <holt@sgi.com> Reported-by: Alex Thorlton <athorlton@sgi.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-26Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-5/+6
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs Pull vfs pile (part one) from Al Viro: "Assorted stuff - cleaning namei.c up a bit, fixing ->d_name/->d_parent locking violations, etc. The most visible changes here are death of FS_REVAL_DOT (replaced with "has ->d_weak_revalidate()") and a new helper getting from struct file to inode. Some bits of preparation to xattr method interface changes. Misc patches by various people sent this cycle *and* ocfs2 fixes from several cycles ago that should've been upstream right then. PS: the next vfs pile will be xattr stuff." * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/viro/vfs: (46 commits) saner proc_get_inode() calling conventions proc: avoid extra pde_put() in proc_fill_super() fs: change return values from -EACCES to -EPERM fs/exec.c: make bprm_mm_init() static ocfs2/dlm: use GFP_ATOMIC inside a spin_lock ocfs2: fix possible use-after-free with AIO ocfs2: Fix oops in ocfs2_fast_symlink_readpage() code path get_empty_filp()/alloc_file() leave both ->f_pos and ->f_version zero target: writev() on single-element vector is pointless export kernel_write(), convert open-coded instances fs: encode_fh: return FILEID_INVALID if invalid fid_type kill f_vfsmnt vfs: kill FS_REVAL_DOT by adding a d_weak_revalidate dentry op nfsd: handle vfs_getattr errors in acl protocol switch vfs_getattr() to struct path default SET_PERSONALITY() in linux/elf.h ceph: prepopulate inodes only when request is aborted d_hash_and_lookup(): export, switch open-coded instances 9p: switch v9fs_set_create_acl() to inode+fid, do it before d_instantiate() 9p: split dropping the acls from v9fs_set_create_acl() ...
2013-02-23mm: make do_mmap_pgoff return populate as a size in bytes, not as a boolMichel Lespinasse-2/+2
do_mmap_pgoff() rounds up the desired size to the next PAGE_SIZE multiple, however there was no equivalent code in mm_populate(), which caused issues. This could be fixed by introduced the same rounding in mm_populate(), however I think it's preferable to make do_mmap_pgoff() return populate as a size rather than as a boolean, so we don't have to duplicate the size rounding logic in mm_populate(). Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Tested-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net> Cc: Greg Ungerer <gregungerer@westnet.com.au> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-23mm: introduce mm_populate() for populating new vmasMichel Lespinasse-5/+7
When creating new mappings using the MAP_POPULATE / MAP_LOCKED flags (or with MCL_FUTURE in effect), we want to populate the pages within the newly created vmas. This may take a while as we may have to read pages from disk, so ideally we want to do this outside of the write-locked mmap_sem region. This change introduces mm_populate(), which is used to defer populating such mappings until after the mmap_sem write lock has been released. This is implemented as a generalization of the former do_mlock_pages(), which accomplished the same task but was using during mlock() / mlockall(). Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Reported-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Tested-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net> Cc: Greg Ungerer <gregungerer@westnet.com.au> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-02-22fs: Preserve error code in get_empty_filp(), part 2Anatol Pomozov-1/+2
Allocating a file structure in function get_empty_filp() might fail because of several reasons: - not enough memory for file structures - operation is not allowed - user is over its limit Currently the function returns NULL in all cases and we loose the exact reason of the error. All callers of get_empty_filp() assume that the function can fail with ENFILE only. Return error through pointer. Change all callers to preserve this error code. [AV: cleaned up a bit, carved the get_empty_filp() part out into a separate commit (things remaining here deal with alloc_file()), removed pipe(2) behaviour change] Signed-off-by: Anatol Pomozov <anatol.pomozov@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2013-02-22new helper: file_inode(file)Al Viro-4/+4
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2012-12-11mm: support more pagesizes for MAP_HUGETLB/SHM_HUGETLBAndi Kleen-1/+2
There was some desire in large applications using MAP_HUGETLB or SHM_HUGETLB to use 1GB huge pages on some mappings, and stay with 2MB on others. This is useful together with NUMA policy: use 2MB interleaving on some mappings, but 1GB on local mappings. This patch extends the IPC/SHM syscall interfaces slightly to allow specifying the page size. It borrows some upper bits in the existing flag arguments and allows encoding the log of the desired page size in addition to the *_HUGETLB flag. When 0 is specified the default size is used, this makes the change fully compatible. Extending the internal hugetlb code to handle this is straight forward. Instead of a single mount it just keeps an array of them and selects the right mount based on the specified page size. When no page size is specified it uses the mount of the default page size. The change is not visible in /proc/mounts because internal mounts don't appear there. It also has very little overhead: the additional mounts just consume a super block, but not more memory when not used. I also exported the new flags to the user headers (they were previously under __KERNEL__). Right now only symbols for x86 and some other architecture for 1GB and 2MB are defined. The interface should already work for all other architectures though. Only architectures that define multiple hugetlb sizes actually need it (that is currently x86, tile, powerpc). However tile and powerpc have user configurable hugetlb sizes, so it's not easy to add defines. A program on those architectures would need to query sysfs and use the appropiate log2. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanups] [rientjes@google.com: fix build] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: checkpatch fixes] Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>