path: root/kernel/bpf/arraymap.c
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2016-03-08bpf: check for reserved flag bits in array and stack mapsAlexei Starovoitov-1/+1
Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2016-02-06bpf: add lookup/update support for per-cpu hash and array mapsAlexei Starovoitov-0/+64
The functions bpf_map_lookup_elem(map, key, value) and bpf_map_update_elem(map, key, value, flags) need to get/set values from all-cpus for per-cpu hash and array maps, so that user space can aggregate/update them as necessary. Example of single counter aggregation in user space: unsigned int nr_cpus = sysconf(_SC_NPROCESSORS_CONF); long values[nr_cpus]; long value = 0; bpf_lookup_elem(fd, key, values); for (i = 0; i < nr_cpus; i++) value += values[i]; The user space must provide round_up(value_size, 8) * nr_cpus array to get/set values, since kernel will use 'long' copy of per-cpu values to try to copy good counters atomically. It's a best-effort, since bpf programs and user space are racing to access the same memory. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2016-02-06bpf: introduce BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_ARRAY mapAlexei Starovoitov-11/+91
Primary use case is a histogram array of latency where bpf program computes the latency of block requests or other events and stores histogram of latency into array of 64 elements. All cpus are constantly running, so normal increment is not accurate, bpf_xadd causes cache ping-pong and this per-cpu approach allows fastest collision-free counters. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2016-01-29perf/bpf: Convert perf_event_array to use struct fileAlexei Starovoitov-10/+11
Robustify refcounting. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <> Cc: Alexander Shishkin <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <> Cc: David Ahern <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Jiri Olsa <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Namhyung Kim <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Stephane Eranian <> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Vince Weaver <> Cc: Wang Nan <> Cc: Link: Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2015-12-02bpf: fix allocation warnings in bpf maps and integer overflowAlexei Starovoitov-1/+7
For large map->value_size the user space can trigger memory allocation warnings like: WARNING: CPU: 2 PID: 11122 at mm/page_alloc.c:2989 __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x695/0x14e0() Call Trace: [< inline >] __dump_stack lib/dump_stack.c:15 [<ffffffff82743b56>] dump_stack+0x68/0x92 lib/dump_stack.c:50 [<ffffffff81244ec9>] warn_slowpath_common+0xd9/0x140 kernel/panic.c:460 [<ffffffff812450f9>] warn_slowpath_null+0x29/0x30 kernel/panic.c:493 [< inline >] __alloc_pages_slowpath mm/page_alloc.c:2989 [<ffffffff81554e95>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x695/0x14e0 mm/page_alloc.c:3235 [<ffffffff816188fe>] alloc_pages_current+0xee/0x340 mm/mempolicy.c:2055 [< inline >] alloc_pages include/linux/gfp.h:451 [<ffffffff81550706>] alloc_kmem_pages+0x16/0xf0 mm/page_alloc.c:3414 [<ffffffff815a1c89>] kmalloc_order+0x19/0x60 mm/slab_common.c:1007 [<ffffffff815a1cef>] kmalloc_order_trace+0x1f/0xa0 mm/slab_common.c:1018 [< inline >] kmalloc_large include/linux/slab.h:390 [<ffffffff81627784>] __kmalloc+0x234/0x250 mm/slub.c:3525 [< inline >] kmalloc include/linux/slab.h:463 [< inline >] map_update_elem kernel/bpf/syscall.c:288 [< inline >] SYSC_bpf kernel/bpf/syscall.c:744 To avoid never succeeding kmalloc with order >= MAX_ORDER check that elem->value_size and computed elem_size are within limits for both hash and array type maps. Also add __GFP_NOWARN to kmalloc(value_size | elem_size) to avoid OOM warnings. Note kmalloc(key_size) is highly unlikely to trigger OOM, since key_size <= 512, so keep those kmalloc-s as-is. Large value_size can cause integer overflows in elem_size and map.pages formulas, so check for that as well. Fixes: aaac3ba95e4c ("bpf: charge user for creation of BPF maps and programs") Reported-by: Dmitry Vyukov <> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-12-01bpf, array: fix heap out-of-bounds access when updating elementsDaniel Borkmann-1/+1
During own review but also reported by Dmitry's syzkaller [1] it has been noticed that we trigger a heap out-of-bounds access on eBPF array maps when updating elements. This happens with each map whose map->value_size (specified during map creation time) is not multiple of 8 bytes. In array_map_alloc(), elem_size is round_up(attr->value_size, 8) and used to align array map slots for faster access. However, in function array_map_update_elem(), we update the element as ... memcpy(array->value + array->elem_size * index, value, array->elem_size); ... where we access 'value' out-of-bounds, since it was allocated from map_update_elem() from syscall side as kmalloc(map->value_size, GFP_USER) and later on copied through copy_from_user(value, uvalue, map->value_size). Thus, up to 7 bytes, we can access out-of-bounds. Same could happen from within an eBPF program, where in worst case we access beyond an eBPF program's designated stack. Since 1be7f75d1668 ("bpf: enable non-root eBPF programs") didn't hit an official release yet, it only affects priviledged users. In case of array_map_lookup_elem(), the verifier prevents eBPF programs from accessing beyond map->value_size through check_map_access(). Also from syscall side map_lookup_elem() only copies map->value_size back to user, so nothing could leak. [1] Fixes: 28fbcfa08d8e ("bpf: add array type of eBPF maps") Reported-by: Dmitry Vyukov <> Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <> Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-10-26bpf: fix bpf_perf_event_read() helperAlexei Starovoitov-9/+16
Fix safety checks for bpf_perf_event_read(): - only non-inherited events can be added to perf_event_array map (do this check statically at map insertion time) - dynamically check that event is local and !pmu->count Otherwise buggy bpf program can cause kernel splat. Also fix error path after perf_event_attrs() and remove redundant 'extern'. Fixes: 35578d798400 ("bpf: Implement function bpf_perf_event_read() that get the selected hardware PMU conuter") Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Tested-by: Wang Nan <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-10-22bpf: introduce bpf_perf_event_output() helperAlexei Starovoitov-0/+2
This helper is used to send raw data from eBPF program into special PERF_TYPE_SOFTWARE/PERF_COUNT_SW_BPF_OUTPUT perf_event. User space needs to perf_event_open() it (either for one or all cpus) and store FD into perf_event_array (similar to bpf_perf_event_read() helper) before eBPF program can send data into it. Today the programs triggered by kprobe collect the data and either store it into the maps or print it via bpf_trace_printk() where latter is the debug facility and not suitable to stream the data. This new helper replaces such bpf_trace_printk() usage and allows programs to have dedicated channel into user space for post-processing of the raw data collected. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-10-12bpf: charge user for creation of BPF maps and programsAlexei Starovoitov-1/+1
since eBPF programs and maps use kernel memory consider it 'locked' memory from user accounting point of view and charge it against RLIMIT_MEMLOCK limit. This limit is typically set to 64Kbytes by distros, so almost all bpf+tracing programs would need to increase it, since they use maps, but kernel charges maximum map size upfront. For example the hash map of 1024 elements will be charged as 64Kbyte. It's inconvenient for current users and changes current behavior for root, but probably worth doing to be consistent root vs non-root. Similar accounting logic is done by mmap of perf_event. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-10-05ebpf: include perf_event only where really neededDaniel Borkmann-0/+1
Commit ea317b267e9d ("bpf: Add new bpf map type to store the pointer to struct perf_event") added perf_event.h to the main eBPF header, so it gets included for all users. perf_event.h is actually only needed from array map side, so lets sanitize this a bit. Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <> Cc: Kaixu Xia <> Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-08-09bpf: Add new bpf map type to store the pointer to struct perf_eventKaixu Xia-0/+57
Introduce a new bpf map type 'BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERF_EVENT_ARRAY'. This map only stores the pointer to struct perf_event. The user space event FDs from perf_event_open() syscall are converted to the pointer to struct perf_event and stored in map. Signed-off-by: Kaixu Xia <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-08-09bpf: Make the bpf_prog_array_map more genericWang Nan-31/+49
All the map backends are of generic nature. In order to avoid adding much special code into the eBPF core, rewrite part of the bpf_prog_array map code and make it more generic. So the new perf_event_array map type can reuse most of code with bpf_prog_array map and add fewer lines of special code. Signed-off-by: Wang Nan <> Signed-off-by: Kaixu Xia <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-05-31bpf: add missing rcu protection when releasing programs from prog_arrayAlexei Starovoitov-2/+2
Normally the program attachment place (like sockets, qdiscs) takes care of rcu protection and calls bpf_prog_put() after a grace period. The programs stored inside prog_array may not be attached anywhere, so prog_array needs to take care of preserving rcu protection. Otherwise bpf_tail_call() will race with bpf_prog_put(). To solve that introduce bpf_prog_put_rcu() helper function and use it in 3 places where unattached program can decrement refcnt: closing program fd, deleting/replacing program in prog_array. Fixes: 04fd61ab36ec ("bpf: allow bpf programs to tail-call other bpf programs") Reported-by: Martin Schwidefsky <> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-05-21bpf: allow bpf programs to tail-call other bpf programsAlexei Starovoitov-6/+107
introduce bpf_tail_call(ctx, &jmp_table, index) helper function which can be used from BPF programs like: int bpf_prog(struct pt_regs *ctx) { ... bpf_tail_call(ctx, &jmp_table, index); ... } that is roughly equivalent to: int bpf_prog(struct pt_regs *ctx) { ... if (jmp_table[index]) return (*jmp_table[index])(ctx); ... } The important detail that it's not a normal call, but a tail call. The kernel stack is precious, so this helper reuses the current stack frame and jumps into another BPF program without adding extra call frame. It's trivially done in interpreter and a bit trickier in JITs. In case of x64 JIT the bigger part of generated assembler prologue is common for all programs, so it is simply skipped while jumping. Other JITs can do similar prologue-skipping optimization or do stack unwind before jumping into the next program. bpf_tail_call() arguments: ctx - context pointer jmp_table - one of BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY maps used as the jump table index - index in the jump table Since all BPF programs are idenitified by file descriptor, user space need to populate the jmp_table with FDs of other BPF programs. If jmp_table[index] is empty the bpf_tail_call() doesn't jump anywhere and program execution continues as normal. New BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY map type is introduced so that user space can populate this jmp_table array with FDs of other bpf programs. Programs can share the same jmp_table array or use multiple jmp_tables. The chain of tail calls can form unpredictable dynamic loops therefore tail_call_cnt is used to limit the number of calls and currently is set to 32. Use cases: Acked-by: Daniel Borkmann <> ========== - simplify complex programs by splitting them into a sequence of small programs - dispatch routine For tracing and future seccomp the program may be triggered on all system calls, but processing of syscall arguments will be different. It's more efficient to implement them as: int syscall_entry(struct seccomp_data *ctx) { bpf_tail_call(ctx, &syscall_jmp_table, ctx->nr /* syscall number */); ... default: process unknown syscall ... } int sys_write_event(struct seccomp_data *ctx) {...} int sys_read_event(struct seccomp_data *ctx) {...} syscall_jmp_table[__NR_write] = sys_write_event; syscall_jmp_table[__NR_read] = sys_read_event; For networking the program may call into different parsers depending on packet format, like: int packet_parser(struct __sk_buff *skb) { ... parse L2, L3 here ... __u8 ipproto = load_byte(skb, ... offsetof(struct iphdr, protocol)); bpf_tail_call(skb, &ipproto_jmp_table, ipproto); ... default: process unknown protocol ... } int parse_tcp(struct __sk_buff *skb) {...} int parse_udp(struct __sk_buff *skb) {...} ipproto_jmp_table[IPPROTO_TCP] = parse_tcp; ipproto_jmp_table[IPPROTO_UDP] = parse_udp; - for TC use case, bpf_tail_call() allows to implement reclassify-like logic - bpf_map_update_elem/delete calls into BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY jump table are atomic, so user space can build chains of BPF programs on the fly Implementation details: ======================= - high performance of bpf_tail_call() is the goal. It could have been implemented without JIT changes as a wrapper on top of BPF_PROG_RUN() macro, but with two downsides: . all programs would have to pay performance penalty for this feature and tail call itself would be slower, since mandatory stack unwind, return, stack allocate would be done for every tailcall. . tailcall would be limited to programs running preempt_disabled, since generic 'void *ctx' doesn't have room for 'tail_call_cnt' and it would need to be either global per_cpu variable accessed by helper and by wrapper or global variable protected by locks. In this implementation x64 JIT bypasses stack unwind and jumps into the callee program after prologue. - bpf_prog_array_compatible() ensures that prog_type of callee and caller are the same and JITed/non-JITed flag is the same, since calling JITed program from non-JITed is invalid, since stack frames are different. Similarly calling kprobe type program from socket type program is invalid. - jump table is implemented as BPF_MAP_TYPE_PROG_ARRAY to reuse 'map' abstraction, its user space API and all of verifier logic. It's in the existing arraymap.c file, since several functions are shared with regular array map. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2015-03-01ebpf: constify various function pointer structsDaniel Borkmann-3/+3
We can move bpf_map_ops and bpf_verifier_ops and other structs into ro section, bpf_map_type_list and bpf_prog_type_list into read mostly. Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <> Acked-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-11-19bpf: fix arraymap NULL deref and missing overflow and zero size checksAlexei Starovoitov-6/+11
- fix NULL pointer dereference: kernel/bpf/arraymap.c:41 array_map_alloc() error: potential null dereference 'array'. (kzalloc returns null) kernel/bpf/arraymap.c:41 array_map_alloc() error: we previously assumed 'array' could be null (see line 40) - integer overflow check was missing in arraymap (hashmap checks for overflow via kmalloc_array()) - arraymap can round_up(value_size, 8) to zero. check was missing. - hashmap was missing zero size check as well, since roundup_pow_of_two() can truncate into zero - found a typo in the arraymap comment and unnecessary empty line Fix all of these issues and make both overflow checks explicit U32 in size. Reported-by: kbuild test robot <> Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
2014-11-18bpf: add array type of eBPF mapsAlexei Starovoitov-0/+151
add new map type BPF_MAP_TYPE_ARRAY and its implementation - optimized for fastest possible lookup() . in the future verifier/JIT may recognize lookup() with constant key and optimize it into constant pointer. Can optimize non-constant key into direct pointer arithmetic as well, since pointers and value_size are constant for the life of the eBPF program. In other words array_map_lookup_elem() may be 'inlined' by verifier/JIT while preserving concurrent access to this map from user space - two main use cases for array type: . 'global' eBPF variables: array of 1 element with key=0 and value is a collection of 'global' variables which programs can use to keep the state between events . aggregation of tracing events into fixed set of buckets - all array elements pre-allocated and zero initialized at init time - key as an index in array and can only be 4 byte - map_delete_elem() returns EINVAL, since elements cannot be deleted - map_update_elem() replaces elements in an non-atomic way (for atomic updates hashtable type should be used instead) Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>