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2016-03-20Merge branch 'core-objtool-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-6/+7
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull 'objtool' stack frame validation from Ingo Molnar: "This tree adds a new kernel build-time object file validation feature (ONFIG_STACK_VALIDATION=y): kernel stack frame correctness validation. It was written by and is maintained by Josh Poimboeuf. The motivation: there's a category of hard to find kernel bugs, most of them in assembly code (but also occasionally in C code), that degrades the quality of kernel stack dumps/backtraces. These bugs are hard to detect at the source code level. Such bugs result in incorrect/incomplete backtraces most of time - but can also in some rare cases result in crashes or other undefined behavior. The build time correctness checking is done via the new 'objtool' user-space utility that was written for this purpose and which is hosted in the kernel repository in tools/objtool/. The tool's (very simple) UI and source code design is shaped after Git and perf and shares quite a bit of infrastructure with tools/perf (which tooling infrastructure sharing effort got merged via perf and is already upstream). Objtool follows the well-known kernel coding style. Objtool does not try to check .c or .S files, it instead analyzes the resulting .o generated machine code from first principles: it decodes the instruction stream and interprets it. (Right now objtool supports the x86-64 architecture.) From tools/objtool/Documentation/stack-validation.txt: "The kernel CONFIG_STACK_VALIDATION option enables a host tool named objtool which runs at compile time. It has a "check" subcommand which analyzes every .o file and ensures the validity of its stack metadata. It enforces a set of rules on asm code and C inline assembly code so that stack traces can be reliable. Currently it only checks frame pointer usage, but there are plans to add CFI validation for C files and CFI generation for asm files. For each function, it recursively follows all possible code paths and validates the correct frame pointer state at each instruction. It also follows code paths involving special sections, like .altinstructions, __jump_table, and __ex_table, which can add alternative execution paths to a given instruction (or set of instructions). Similarly, it knows how to follow switch statements, for which gcc sometimes uses jump tables." When this new kernel option is enabled (it's disabled by default), the tool, if it finds any suspicious assembly code pattern, outputs warnings in compiler warning format: warning: objtool: rtlwifi_rate_mapping()+0x2e7: frame pointer state mismatch warning: objtool: cik_tiling_mode_table_init()+0x6ce: call without frame pointer save/setup warning: objtool:__schedule()+0x3c0: duplicate frame pointer save warning: objtool:__schedule()+0x3fd: sibling call from callable instruction with changed frame pointer ... so that scripts that pick up compiler warnings will notice them. All known warnings triggered by the tool are fixed by the tree, most of the commits in fact prepare the kernel to be warning-free. Most of them are bugfixes or cleanups that stand on their own, but there are also some annotations of 'special' stack frames for justified cases such entries to JIT-ed code (BPF) or really special boot time code. There are two other long-term motivations behind this tool as well: - To improve the quality and reliability of kernel stack frames, so that they can be used for optimized live patching. - To create independent infrastructure to check the correctness of CFI stack frames at build time. CFI debuginfo is notoriously unreliable and we cannot use it in the kernel as-is without extra checking done both on the kernel side and on the build side. The quality of kernel stack frames matters to debuggability as well, so IMO we can merge this without having to consider the live patching or CFI debuginfo angle" * 'core-objtool-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (52 commits) objtool: Only print one warning per function objtool: Add several performance improvements tools: Copy hashtable.h into tools directory objtool: Fix false positive warnings for functions with multiple switch statements objtool: Rename some variables and functions objtool: Remove superflous INIT_LIST_HEAD objtool: Add helper macros for traversing instructions objtool: Fix false positive warnings related to sibling calls objtool: Compile with debugging symbols objtool: Detect infinite recursion objtool: Prevent infinite recursion in noreturn detection objtool: Detect and warn if libelf is missing and don't break the build tools: Support relative directory path for 'O=' objtool: Support CROSS_COMPILE x86/asm/decoder: Use explicitly signed chars objtool: Enable stack metadata validation on 64-bit x86 objtool: Add CONFIG_STACK_VALIDATION option objtool: Add tool to perform compile-time stack metadata validation x86/kprobes: Mark kretprobe_trampoline() stack frame as non-standard sched: Always inline context_switch() ...
2016-02-29objtool: Add tool to perform compile-time stack metadata validationJosh Poimboeuf-6/+8
This adds a host tool named objtool which has a "check" subcommand which analyzes .o files to ensure the validity of stack metadata. It enforces a set of rules on asm code and C inline assembly code so that stack traces can be reliable. For each function, it recursively follows all possible code paths and validates the correct frame pointer state at each instruction. It also follows code paths involving kernel special sections, like .altinstructions, __jump_table, and __ex_table, which can add alternative execution paths to a given instruction (or set of instructions). Similarly, it knows how to follow switch statements, for which gcc sometimes uses jump tables. Here are some of the benefits of validating stack metadata: a) More reliable stack traces for frame pointer enabled kernels Frame pointers are used for debugging purposes. They allow runtime code and debug tools to be able to walk the stack to determine the chain of function call sites that led to the currently executing code. For some architectures, frame pointers are enabled by CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER. For some other architectures they may be required by the ABI (sometimes referred to as "backchain pointers"). For C code, gcc automatically generates instructions for setting up frame pointers when the -fno-omit-frame-pointer option is used. But for asm code, the frame setup instructions have to be written by hand, which most people don't do. So the end result is that CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER is honored for C code but not for most asm code. For stack traces based on frame pointers to be reliable, all functions which call other functions must first create a stack frame and update the frame pointer. If a first function doesn't properly create a stack frame before calling a second function, the *caller* of the first function will be skipped on the stack trace. For example, consider the following example backtrace with frame pointers enabled: [<ffffffff81812584>] dump_stack+0x4b/0x63 [<ffffffff812d6dc2>] cmdline_proc_show+0x12/0x30 [<ffffffff8127f568>] seq_read+0x108/0x3e0 [<ffffffff812cce62>] proc_reg_read+0x42/0x70 [<ffffffff81256197>] __vfs_read+0x37/0x100 [<ffffffff81256b16>] vfs_read+0x86/0x130 [<ffffffff81257898>] SyS_read+0x58/0xd0 [<ffffffff8181c1f2>] entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x12/0x76 It correctly shows that the caller of cmdline_proc_show() is seq_read(). If we remove the frame pointer logic from cmdline_proc_show() by replacing the frame pointer related instructions with nops, here's what it looks like instead: [<ffffffff81812584>] dump_stack+0x4b/0x63 [<ffffffff812d6dc2>] cmdline_proc_show+0x12/0x30 [<ffffffff812cce62>] proc_reg_read+0x42/0x70 [<ffffffff81256197>] __vfs_read+0x37/0x100 [<ffffffff81256b16>] vfs_read+0x86/0x130 [<ffffffff81257898>] SyS_read+0x58/0xd0 [<ffffffff8181c1f2>] entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath+0x12/0x76 Notice that cmdline_proc_show()'s caller, seq_read(), has been skipped. Instead the stack trace seems to show that cmdline_proc_show() was called by proc_reg_read(). The benefit of "objtool check" here is that because it ensures that *all* functions honor CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER, no functions will ever[*] be skipped on a stack trace. [*] unless an interrupt or exception has occurred at the very beginning of a function before the stack frame has been created, or at the very end of the function after the stack frame has been destroyed. This is an inherent limitation of frame pointers. b) 100% reliable stack traces for DWARF enabled kernels This is not yet implemented. For more details about what is planned, see tools/objtool/Documentation/stack-validation.txt. c) Higher live patching compatibility rate This is not yet implemented. For more details about what is planned, see tools/objtool/Documentation/stack-validation.txt. To achieve the validation, "objtool check" enforces the following rules: 1. Each callable function must be annotated as such with the ELF function type. In asm code, this is typically done using the ENTRY/ENDPROC macros. If objtool finds a return instruction outside of a function, it flags an error since that usually indicates callable code which should be annotated accordingly. This rule is needed so that objtool can properly identify each callable function in order to analyze its stack metadata. 2. Conversely, each section of code which is *not* callable should *not* be annotated as an ELF function. The ENDPROC macro shouldn't be used in this case. This rule is needed so that objtool can ignore non-callable code. Such code doesn't have to follow any of the other rules. 3. Each callable function which calls another function must have the correct frame pointer logic, if required by CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER or the architecture's back chain rules. This can by done in asm code with the FRAME_BEGIN/FRAME_END macros. This rule ensures that frame pointer based stack traces will work as designed. If function A doesn't create a stack frame before calling function B, the _caller_ of function A will be skipped on the stack trace. 4. Dynamic jumps and jumps to undefined symbols are only allowed if: a) the jump is part of a switch statement; or b) the jump matches sibling call semantics and the frame pointer has the same value it had on function entry. This rule is needed so that objtool can reliably analyze all of a function's code paths. If a function jumps to code in another file, and it's not a sibling call, objtool has no way to follow the jump because it only analyzes a single file at a time. 5. A callable function may not execute kernel entry/exit instructions. The only code which needs such instructions is kernel entry code, which shouldn't be be in callable functions anyway. This rule is just a sanity check to ensure that callable functions return normally. It currently only supports x86_64. I tried to make the code generic so that support for other architectures can hopefully be plugged in relatively easily. On my Lenovo laptop with a i7-4810MQ 4-core/8-thread CPU, building the kernel with objtool checking every .o file adds about three seconds of total build time. It hasn't been optimized for performance yet, so there are probably some opportunities for better build performance. Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> Cc: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@kernel.org> Cc: Bernd Petrovitsch <bernd@petrovitsch.priv.at> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Cc: Chris J Arges <chris.j.arges@canonical.com> Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: Pedro Alves <palves@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: live-patching@vger.kernel.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/f3efb173de43bd067b060de73f856567c0fa1174.1456719558.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2016-02-09tools/gpio: create GPIO toolsLinus Walleij-3/+5
This creates GPIO tools under tools/gpio/* and adds a single example program to list the GPIOs on a system. When proper devices are created it provides this minimal output: Cc: Johan Hovold <johan@kernel.org> Cc: Michael Welling <mwelling@ieee.org> Cc: Markus Pargmann <mpa@pengutronix.de> Signed-off-by: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
2016-01-14Merge branch 'perf-urgent-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds-18/+27
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip Pull perf fixes from Ingo Molnar: "Tooling fixes, the biggest patch is one that decouples the kernel's list.h from tooling list.h" * 'perf-urgent-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (23 commits) perf tools: Fallback to srcdir/Documentation/tips.txt perf ui/tui: Print helpline message as is perf tools: Set and pass DOCDIR to builtin-report.c perf tools: Add file_only config option to strlist perf tools: Add more usage tips perf record: Add --buildid-all option tools subcmd: Add missing NORETURN define for parse-options.h tools: Fix formatting of the "make -C tools" help message tools: Make list.h self-sufficient perf tools: Fix mmap2 event allocation in synthesize code perf stat: Fix recort_usage typo perf test: Reset err after using it hold errcode in hist testcases perf test: Fix false TEST_OK result for 'perf test hist' tools build: Add BPF feature check to test-all perf bpf: Fix build breakage due to libbpf tools: Move Makefile.arch from perf/config to tools/scripts perf tools: Fix PowerPC native building perf tools: Fix phony build target for build-test perf tools: Add -lutil in python lib list for broken python-config perf tools: Add missing sources to perf's MANIFEST ...
2016-01-13Merge tag 'spi-v4.5' of ↵Linus Torvalds-3/+4
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/broonie/spi Pull spi updates from Mark Brown: "A quiet release for SPI, not even many driver updates: - Add a dummy loopback driver for use in exercising framework features during development. - Move the test utilities to tools/ and add support for transferring data to and from a file instead of stdin and stdout to spidev_test. - Support for Mediatek MT2701 and Renesas AG5 deices" * tag 'spi-v4.5' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/broonie/spi: (69 commits) spi: loopback: fix typo in MODULE_PARM_DESC spi: sun4i: Prevent chip-select from being activated twice before a transfer spi: loopback-test: spi_check_rx_ranges can get always done spi: loopback-test: rename method spi_test_fill_tx to spi_test_fill_pattern spi: loopback-test: write rx pattern also when running without tx_buf spi: fsl-espi: expose maximum transfer size limit spi: expose master transfer size limitation. spi: zynq: use to_platform_device() spi: cadence: use to_platform_device() spi: mediatek: Add spi support for mt2701 IC spi: mediatek: merge all identical compat to mtk_common_compat spi: mtk: Add bindings for mediatek MT2701 soc platform spi: mediatek: Prevent overflows in FIFO transfers spi: s3c64xx: Remove unused platform_device_id entries spi: use to_spi_device spi: dw: Use SPI_TMOD_TR rather than magic const 0 to set tmode spi: imx: defer spi initialization, if DMA engine is spi: imx: return error from dma channel request spi: imx: enable loopback only for ECSPI controller family spi: imx: fix loopback mode setup after controller reset ...
2016-01-12tools: Fix formatting of the "make -C tools" help messageJosh Poimboeuf-16/+16
Align the x86_energy_perf_policy line with the others and restore the original alphabetical sorting. Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org> Cc: Bernd Petrovitsch <bernd@petrovitsch.priv.at> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Cc: Chris J Arges <chris.j.arges@canonical.com> Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: Pedro Alves <palves@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: live-patching@vger.kernel.org Cc: x86@kernel.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/572931227adbf1fc9ca96e1dae3ef2e89387feca.1450442274.git.jpoimboe@redhat.com Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2016-01-11Merge remote-tracking branches 'spi/topic/overlay', 'spi/topic/pxa2xx', ↵Mark Brown-3/+4
'spi/topic/s3c64xx', 'spi/topic/sh-msiof' and 'spi/topic/spidev' into spi-next
2016-01-11tools: Add clean targets for tools directoryJiri Olsa-1/+10
Adding missing clean targets for following tools directories: lib/bpf lib/subcmd build This are now cleaned via 'make -C tools clean' command. Reported-and-Tested-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org> Cc: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Wang Nan <wangnan0@huawei.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1452509693-13452-2-git-send-email-jolsa@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-11-23spi: Move spi code from Documentation to toolsJoshua Clayton-3/+4
Jon Corbet requested this code moved with the last changeset, https://lkml.org/lkml/2015/3/1/144, but the patch was not applied because it missed the Makefile. Moved spidev_test, spidev_fdx and their Makefile infrastructure. Signed-off-by: Joshua Clayton <stillcompiling@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Mark Brown <broonie@kernel.org>
2015-11-18tools: Fix selftests_install Makefile ruleKevin Hilman-1/+1
Fix copy/paste error in selftests_install rule which was copy-pasted from the clean rule but not properly changed. Signed-off-by: Kevin Hilman <khilman@linaro.org> Cc: Bamvor Jian Zhang <bamvor.zhangjian@linaro.org> Cc: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org> Cc: Jonathan Cameron <jic23@kernel.org> Cc: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au> Cc: Pali Rohar <pali.rohar@gmail.com> Cc: Pavel Machek <pavel@ucw.cz> Cc: Roberta Dobrescu <roberta.dobrescu@gmail.com> Cc: Shuah Khan <shuahkh@osg.samsung.com> Cc: linaro-kernel@lists.linaro.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1447797261-1775-1-git-send-email-khilman@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-11-12tools: Add a "make all" ruleKamal Mostafa-0/+9
Signed-off-by: Kamal Mostafa <kamal@canonical.com> Acked-by: Pavel Machek <pavel@ucw.cz> Cc: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org> Cc: Jonathan Cameron <jic23@kernel.org> Cc: Pali Rohar <pali.rohar@gmail.com> Cc: Roberta Dobrescu <roberta.dobrescu@gmail.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1447280736-2161-2-git-send-email-kamal@canonical.com Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-11-12tools: Actually install tmon in the install ruleKamal Mostafa-1/+1
Signed-off-by: Kamal Mostafa <kamal@canonical.com> Cc: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org> Cc: Pali Rohar <pali.rohar@gmail.com> Cc: Roberta Dobrescu <roberta.dobrescu@gmail.com> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1447280736-2161-1-git-send-email-kamal@canonical.com Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-06-26Merge tag 'staging-4.2-rc1' of ↵Linus Torvalds-3/+5
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/staging Pull staging driver updates from Greg KH: "Here's the big, really big, staging tree patches for 4.2-rc1. Loads of stuff in here, almost all just coding style fixes / churn, and a few new drivers as well, one of which I just disabled from the build a few minutes ago due to way too many build warnings. Other than the one "disable this driver" patch, all of these have been in linux-next for quite a while with no reported issues" * tag 'staging-4.2-rc1' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/staging: (1163 commits) staging: wilc1000: disable driver due to build warnings Staging: rts5208: fix CHANGE_LINK_STATE value Staging: sm750fb: ddk750_swi2c.c: Insert spaces before parenthesis Staging: sm750fb: ddk750_swi2c.c: Place braces on correct lines Staging: sm750fb: ddk750_swi2c.c: Insert spaces around operators Staging: sm750fb: ddk750_swi2c.c: Replace spaces with tabs Staging: sm750fb: ddk750_swi2c.h: Shorten lines to under 80 characters Staging: sm750fb: ddk750_swi2c.h: Replace spaces with tabs Staging: sm750fb: modedb.h: Shorten lines to under 80 characters Staging: sm750fb: modedb.h: Replace spaces with tabs staging: comedi: addi_apci_3120: rename 'this_board' variables staging: comedi: addi_apci_1516: rename 'this_board' variables staging: comedi: ni_atmio: cleanup ni_getboardtype() staging: comedi: vmk80xx: sanity check context used to get the boardinfo staging: comedi: vmk80xx: rename 'boardinfo' variables staging: comedi: dt3000: rename 'this_board' variables staging: comedi: adv_pci_dio: rename 'this_board' variables staging: comedi: cb_pcidas64: rename 'thisboard' variables staging: comedi: cb_pcidas: rename 'thisboard' variables staging: comedi: me4000: rename 'thisboard' variables ...
2015-06-24Merge tag 'docs-for-linus' of git://git.lwn.net/linux-2.6Linus Torvalds-2/+12
Pull documentation updates from Jonathan Corbet: "The main thing here is Ingo's big subdirectory documenting feature support for each architecture. Beyond that, it's the usual pile of fixes, tweaks, and small additions" * tag 'docs-for-linus' of git://git.lwn.net/linux-2.6: (79 commits) doc:md: fix typo in md.txt. Documentation/mic/mpssd: don't build x86 userspace when cross compiling Documentation/prctl: don't build tsc tests when cross compiling Documentation/vDSO: don't build tests when cross compiling Doc:ABI/testing: Fix typo in sysfs-bus-fcoe Doc: Docbook: Change wikipedia's URL from http to https in scsi.tmpl Doc: Change wikipedia's URL from http to https Documentation/kernel-parameters: add missing pciserial to the earlyprintk Doc:pps: Fix typo in pps.txt kbuild : Fix documentation of INSTALL_HDR_PATH Documentation: filesystems: updated struct file_operations documentation in vfs.txt kbuild: edit explanation of clean-files variable Doc: ja_JP: Fix typo in HOWTO Move freefall program from Documentation/ to tools/ Documentation: ARM: EXYNOS: Describe boot loaders interface Doc:nfc: Fix typo in nfc-hci.txt vfs: Minor documentation fix Doc: networking: txtimestamp: fix printf format warning Documentation, intel_pstate: Improve legacy mode internal governors description Documentation: extend use case for EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL() ...
2015-06-08Move freefall program from Documentation/ to tools/Pali Rohár-2/+12
Signed-off-by: Pali Rohár <pali.rohar@gmail.com> Acked-by: Pavel Machek <pavel@ucw.cz> Signed-off-by: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
2015-04-29tools build: Fix Makefile(s) to properly invoke tools buildJiri Olsa-1/+11
Several fixes were needed to allow following builds: $ make tools/tmon $ make -C <kernelsrc> tools/perf $ make -C <kernelsrc>/tools perf - some of the tools (perf) use same make variables as in kernel build, unsetting srctree and objtree - using original $(O) for O variable - perf build does not follow the descend function setup invoking it via it's own make rule I tried the rest of the tools/Makefile targets and they seem to work now. Reported-by: Brian Norris <computersforpeace@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Brian Norris <computersforpeace@gmail.com> Cc: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Cc: linux-kbuild@vger.kernel.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1429389280-18720-3-git-send-email-jolsa@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-04-29tools build: No need to make libapi for perf explicitlyJiri Olsa-4/+4
The perf build handles its dependencies by itself. Also renaming libapi libapikfs to libapi as it got changed just recently. Signed-off-by: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@kernel.org> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Brian Norris <computersforpeace@gmail.com> Cc: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@kernel.org> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Cc: linux-kbuild@vger.kernel.org Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1429389280-18720-2-git-send-email-jolsa@kernel.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2015-04-09tools: iio: Add iio targets in tools MakefileRoberta Dobrescu-3/+4
This patch adds targets for building and cleaning iio tools to tools/Makefile. To build iio tools from the toplevel kernel directory one should call: $ make -C tools iio and for cleaning it $ make -C tools iio_clean Signed-off-by: Roberta Dobrescu <roberta.dobrescu@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Daniel Baluta <daniel.baluta@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Jonathan Cameron <jic23@kernel.org>
2014-05-08tools/liblockdep: Build liblockdep from tools/MakefileS. Lockwood-Childs-0/+6
add targets to build liblockdep with make -C tools liblockdep like the way other stuff under tools/ can be built Signed-off-by: S. Lockwood-Childs <sjl@vctlabs.com> Signed-off-by: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
2014-02-15Adding makefile for tools/hvBjarke Istrup Pedersen-5/+6
Currently, there is no makefile for the Hyper-V tools. This patch adds the missing makefile, and adds it to the main tools makefile. Signed-off-by: Bjarke Istrup Pedersen <gurligebis@gentoo.org> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
2014-01-24Merge tag 'pm+acpi-3.14-rc1' of ↵Linus Torvalds-3/+13
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rafael/linux-pm Pull ACPI and power management updates from Rafael Wysocki: "As far as the number of commits goes, the top spot belongs to ACPI this time with cpufreq in the second position and a handful of PM core, PNP and cpuidle updates. They are fixes and cleanups mostly, as usual, with a couple of new features in the mix. The most visible change is probably that we will create struct acpi_device objects (visible in sysfs) for all devices represented in the ACPI tables regardless of their status and there will be a new sysfs attribute under those objects allowing user space to check that status via _STA. Consequently, ACPI device eject or generally hot-removal will not delete those objects, unless the table containing the corresponding namespace nodes is unloaded, which is extremely rare. Also ACPI container hotplug will be handled quite a bit differently and cpufreq will support CPU boost ("turbo") generically and not only in the acpi-cpufreq driver. Specifics: - ACPI core changes to make it create a struct acpi_device object for every device represented in the ACPI tables during all namespace scans regardless of the current status of that device. In accordance with this, ACPI hotplug operations will not delete those objects, unless the underlying ACPI tables go away. - On top of the above, new sysfs attribute for ACPI device objects allowing user space to check device status by triggering the execution of _STA for its ACPI object. From Srinivas Pandruvada. - ACPI core hotplug changes reducing code duplication, integrating the PCI root hotplug with the core and reworking container hotplug. - ACPI core simplifications making it use ACPI_COMPANION() in the code "glueing" ACPI device objects to "physical" devices. - ACPICA update to upstream version 20131218. This adds support for the DBG2 and PCCT tables to ACPICA, fixes some bugs and improves debug facilities. From Bob Moore, Lv Zheng and Betty Dall. - Init code change to carry out the early ACPI initialization earlier. That should allow us to use ACPI during the timekeeping initialization and possibly to simplify the EFI initialization too. From Chun-Yi Lee. - Clenups of the inclusions of ACPI headers in many places all over from Lv Zheng and Rashika Kheria (work in progress). - New helper for ACPI _DSM execution and rework of the code in drivers that uses _DSM to execute it via the new helper. From Jiang Liu. - New Win8 OSI blacklist entries from Takashi Iwai. - Assorted ACPI fixes and cleanups from Al Stone, Emil Goode, Hanjun Guo, Lan Tianyu, Masanari Iida, Oliver Neukum, Prarit Bhargava, Rashika Kheria, Tang Chen, Zhang Rui. - intel_pstate driver updates, including proper Baytrail support, from Dirk Brandewie and intel_pstate documentation from Ramkumar Ramachandra. - Generic CPU boost ("turbo") support for cpufreq from Lukasz Majewski. - powernow-k6 cpufreq driver fixes from Mikulas Patocka. - cpufreq core fixes and cleanups from Viresh Kumar, Jane Li, Mark Brown. - Assorted cpufreq drivers fixes and cleanups from Anson Huang, John Tobias, Paul Bolle, Paul Walmsley, Sachin Kamat, Shawn Guo, Viresh Kumar. - cpuidle cleanups from Bartlomiej Zolnierkiewicz. - Support for hibernation APM events from Bin Shi. - Hibernation fix to avoid bringing up nonboot CPUs with ACPI EC disabled during thaw transitions from Bjørn Mork. - PM core fixes and cleanups from Ben Dooks, Leonardo Potenza, Ulf Hansson. - PNP subsystem fixes and cleanups from Dmitry Torokhov, Levente Kurusa, Rashika Kheria. - New tool for profiling system suspend from Todd E Brandt and a cpupower tool cleanup from One Thousand Gnomes" * tag 'pm+acpi-3.14-rc1' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rafael/linux-pm: (153 commits) thermal: exynos: boost: Automatic enable/disable of BOOST feature (at Exynos4412) cpufreq: exynos4x12: Change L0 driver data to CPUFREQ_BOOST_FREQ Documentation: cpufreq / boost: Update BOOST documentation cpufreq: exynos: Extend Exynos cpufreq driver to support boost cpufreq / boost: Kconfig: Support for software-managed BOOST acpi-cpufreq: Adjust the code to use the common boost attribute cpufreq: Add boost frequency support in core intel_pstate: Add trace point to report internal state. cpufreq: introduce cpufreq_generic_get() routine ARM: SA1100: Create dummy clk_get_rate() to avoid build failures cpufreq: stats: create sysfs entries when cpufreq_stats is a module cpufreq: stats: free table and remove sysfs entry in a single routine cpufreq: stats: remove hotplug notifiers cpufreq: stats: handle cpufreq_unregister_driver() and suspend/resume properly cpufreq: speedstep: remove unused speedstep_get_state platform: introduce OF style 'modalias' support for platform bus PM / tools: new tool for suspend/resume performance optimization ACPI: fix module autoloading for ACPI enumerated devices ACPI: add module autoloading support for ACPI enumerated devices ACPI: fix create_modalias() return value handling ...
2014-01-16ACPICA: acpidump: Enable tools Makefile to include acpi tools.Lv Zheng-3/+13
This patch enables ACPI tool build in the tools/Makefile, so that the ACPI tools can be built/cleaned/installed along with other tools. Signed-off-by: Lv Zheng <lv.zheng@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rafael.j.wysocki@intel.com>
2013-12-16tools/: Convert to new topic librariesBorislav Petkov-6/+6
Move debugfs.* to api/fs/. We have a common tools/lib/api/ place where the Makefile lives and then we place the headers in subdirs. For example, all the fs-related stuff goes to tools/lib/api/fs/ from which we get libapikfs.a (acme got almost the naming he wanted :-)) and we link it into the tools which need it - in this case perf and tools/vm/page-types. acme: "Looking at the implementation, I think some tools can even link directly to the .o files, avoiding the .a file altogether. But that is just an optimization/finer granularity tools/lib/ cherrypicking that toolers can make use of." Fixup documentation cleaning target while at it. Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Acked-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Adrian Hunter <adrian.hunter@intel.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Arjan van de Ven <arjan@linux.intel.com> Cc: David Ahern <dsahern@gmail.com> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <fweisbec@gmail.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Jiri Olsa <jolsa@redhat.com> Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Robert Richter <rric@kernel.org> Cc: Stanislav Fomichev <stfomichev@yandex-team.ru> Cc: Stephane Eranian <eranian@google.com> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1386605664-24041-2-git-send-email-bp@alien8.de Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2013-11-07tools/thermal: Introduce tmon, a tool for thermal subsystemJacob Pan-2/+13
Increasingly, Linux is running on thermally constrained devices. The simple thermal relationship between processor and fan has become past for modern computers. As hardware vendors cope with the thermal constraints on their products, more sensors are added, new cooling capabilities are introduced. The complexity of the thermal relationship can grow exponentially among cooling devices, zones, sensors, and trip points. They can also change dynamically. To expose such relationship to the userspace, Linux generic thermal layer introduced sysfs entry at /sys/class/thermal with a matrix of symbolic links, trip point bindings, and device instances. To traverse such matrix by hand is not a trivial task. Testing is also difficult in that thermal conditions are often exception cases that hard to reach in normal operations. TMON is conceived as a tool to help visualize, tune, and test the complex thermal subsystem. Signed-off-by: Jacob Pan <jacob.jun.pan@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: Zhang Rui <rui.zhang@intel.com>
2013-05-01Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-nextLinus Torvalds-5/+6
Pull networking updates from David Miller: "Highlights (1721 non-merge commits, this has to be a record of some sort): 1) Add 'random' mode to team driver, from Jiri Pirko and Eric Dumazet. 2) Make it so that any driver that supports configuration of multiple MAC addresses can provide the forwarding database add and del calls by providing a default implementation and hooking that up if the driver doesn't have an explicit set of handlers. From Vlad Yasevich. 3) Support GSO segmentation over tunnels and other encapsulating devices such as VXLAN, from Pravin B Shelar. 4) Support L2 GRE tunnels in the flow dissector, from Michael Dalton. 5) Implement Tail Loss Probe (TLP) detection in TCP, from Nandita Dukkipati. 6) In the PHY layer, allow supporting wake-on-lan in situations where the PHY registers have to be written for it to be configured. Use it to support wake-on-lan in mv643xx_eth. From Michael Stapelberg. 7) Significantly improve firewire IPV6 support, from YOSHIFUJI Hideaki. 8) Allow multiple packets to be sent in a single transmission using network coding in batman-adv, from Martin Hundebøll. 9) Add support for T5 cxgb4 chips, from Santosh Rastapur. 10) Generalize the VXLAN forwarding tables so that there is more flexibility in configurating various aspects of the endpoints. From David Stevens. 11) Support RSS and TSO in hardware over GRE tunnels in bxn2x driver, from Dmitry Kravkov. 12) Zero copy support in nfnelink_queue, from Eric Dumazet and Pablo Neira Ayuso. 13) Start adding networking selftests. 14) In situations of overload on the same AF_PACKET fanout socket, or per-cpu packet receive queue, minimize drop by distributing the load to other cpus/fanouts. From Willem de Bruijn and Eric Dumazet. 15) Add support for new payload offset BPF instruction, from Daniel Borkmann. 16) Convert several drivers over to mdoule_platform_driver(), from Sachin Kamat. 17) Provide a minimal BPF JIT image disassembler userspace tool, from Daniel Borkmann. 18) Rewrite F-RTO implementation in TCP to match the final specification of it in RFC4138 and RFC5682. From Yuchung Cheng. 19) Provide netlink socket diag of netlink sockets ("Yo dawg, I hear you like netlink, so I implemented netlink dumping of netlink sockets.") From Andrey Vagin. 20) Remove ugly passing of rtnetlink attributes into rtnl_doit functions, from Thomas Graf. 21) Allow userspace to be able to see if a configuration change occurs in the middle of an address or device list dump, from Nicolas Dichtel. 22) Support RFC3168 ECN protection for ipv6 fragments, from Hannes Frederic Sowa. 23) Increase accuracy of packet length used by packet scheduler, from Jason Wang. 24) Beginning set of changes to make ipv4/ipv6 fragment handling more scalable and less susceptible to overload and locking contention, from Jesper Dangaard Brouer. 25) Get rid of using non-type-safe NLMSG_* macros and use nlmsg_*() instead. From Hong Zhiguo. 26) Optimize route usage in IPVS by avoiding reference counting where possible, from Julian Anastasov. 27) Convert IPVS schedulers to RCU, also from Julian Anastasov. 28) Support cpu fanouts in xt_NFQUEUE netfilter target, from Holger Eitzenberger. 29) Network namespace support for nf_log, ebt_log, xt_LOG, ipt_ULOG, nfnetlink_log, and nfnetlink_queue. From Gao feng. 30) Implement RFC3168 ECN protection, from Hannes Frederic Sowa. 31) Support several new r8169 chips, from Hayes Wang. 32) Support tokenized interface identifiers in ipv6, from Daniel Borkmann. 33) Use usbnet_link_change() helper in USB net driver, from Ming Lei. 34) Add 802.1ad vlan offload support, from Patrick McHardy. 35) Support mmap() based netlink communication, also from Patrick McHardy. 36) Support HW timestamping in mlx4 driver, from Amir Vadai. 37) Rationalize AF_PACKET packet timestamping when transmitting, from Willem de Bruijn and Daniel Borkmann. 38) Bring parity to what's provided by /proc/net/packet socket dumping and the info provided by netlink socket dumping of AF_PACKET sockets. From Nicolas Dichtel. 39) Fix peeking beyond zero sized SKBs in AF_UNIX, from Benjamin Poirier" * git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-next: (1722 commits) filter: fix va_list build error af_unix: fix a fatal race with bit fields bnx2x: Prevent memory leak when cnic is absent bnx2x: correct reading of speed capabilities net: sctp: attribute printl with __printf for gcc fmt checks netlink: kconfig: move mmap i/o into netlink kconfig netpoll: convert mutex into a semaphore netlink: Fix skb ref counting. net_sched: act_ipt forward compat with xtables mlx4_en: fix a build error on 32bit arches Revert "bnx2x: allow nvram test to run when device is down" bridge: avoid OOPS if root port not found drivers: net: cpsw: fix kernel warn on cpsw irq enable sh_eth: use random MAC address if no valid one supplied 3c509.c: call SET_NETDEV_DEV for all device types (ISA/ISAPnP/EISA) tg3: fix to append hardware time stamping flags unix/stream: fix peeking with an offset larger than data in queue unix/dgram: fix peeking with an offset larger than data in queue unix/dgram: peek beyond 0-sized skbs openvswitch: Remove unneeded ovs_netdev_get_ifindex() ...
2013-03-21filter: add minimal BPF JIT image disassemblerDaniel Borkmann-5/+6
This is a minimal stand-alone user space helper, that allows for debugging or verification of emitted BPF JIT images. This is in particular useful for emitted opcode debugging, since minor bugs in the JIT compiler can be fatal. The disassembler is architecture generic and uses libopcodes and libbfd. How to get to the disassembly, example: 1) `echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable` 2) Load a BPF filter (e.g. `tcpdump -p -n -s 0 -i eth1 host 192.168.20.0/24`) 3) Run e.g. `bpf_jit_disasm -o` to disassemble the most recent JIT code output `bpf_jit_disasm -o` will display the related opcodes to a particular instruction as well. Example for x86_64: $ ./bpf_jit_disasm 94 bytes emitted from JIT compiler (pass:3, flen:9) ffffffffa0356000 + <x>: 0: push %rbp 1: mov %rsp,%rbp 4: sub $0x60,%rsp 8: mov %rbx,-0x8(%rbp) c: mov 0x68(%rdi),%r9d 10: sub 0x6c(%rdi),%r9d 14: mov 0xe0(%rdi),%r8 1b: mov $0xc,%esi 20: callq 0xffffffffe0d01b71 25: cmp $0x86dd,%eax 2a: jne 0x000000000000003d 2c: mov $0x14,%esi 31: callq 0xffffffffe0d01b8d 36: cmp $0x6,%eax [...] 5c: leaveq 5d: retq $ ./bpf_jit_disasm -o 94 bytes emitted from JIT compiler (pass:3, flen:9) ffffffffa0356000 + <x>: 0: push %rbp 55 1: mov %rsp,%rbp 48 89 e5 4: sub $0x60,%rsp 48 83 ec 60 8: mov %rbx,-0x8(%rbp) 48 89 5d f8 c: mov 0x68(%rdi),%r9d 44 8b 4f 68 10: sub 0x6c(%rdi),%r9d 44 2b 4f 6c [...] 5c: leaveq c9 5d: retq c3 Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
2013-03-21Merge tag 'perf-core-for-mingo' of ↵Ingo Molnar-2/+14
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/acme/linux into perf/core Conflicts: tools/Makefile Pull perf/core improvements and fixes from Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo: . Honor parallel jobs, fix from Borislav Petkov . Introduce tools/lib/lk library, initially just removing duplication among tools/perf and tools/vm. from Borislav Petkov . Fix build on non-glibc systems due to libio.h absence, from Cody P Schafer. . Remove some perf_session and tracing dead code, from David Ahern. . Introduce perf stat --repeat forever, from Frederik Deweerdt. . Add perf test entries for checking --cpu in record and stat, from Jiri Olsa. . Add perf test entries for checking breakpoint overflow signal handler issues, from Jiri Olsa. . Add perf test entry for for checking number of EXIT events, from Namhyung Kim. . Simplify some perf_evlist methods and to allow 'stat' to share code with 'record' and 'trace'. . Remove dead code in related to libtraceevent integration, from Namhyung Kim. . Event group view for 'annotate' in --stdio, --tui and --gtk, from Namhyung Kim. Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com> [ resolved the trivial merge conflict with upstream ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2013-03-15perf tools: Introduce tools/lib/lk libraryBorislav Petkov-2/+14
This introduces the tools/lib/lk library, that will gradually have the routines that now are used in tools/perf/ and other tools and that can be shared. Start by carving out debugfs routines for general use. Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1361374353-30385-5-git-send-email-bp@alien8.de [ committer note: Add tools/lib/lk/ to perf's MANIFEST so that its tarballs continue to build ] Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2013-02-20Merge branch 'for-3.9' of ↵Linus Torvalds-9/+10
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup Pull cgroup changes from Tejun Heo: "Nothing too drastic. - Removal of synchronize_rcu() from userland visible paths. - Various fixes and cleanups from Li. - cgroup_rightmost_descendant() added which will be used by cpuset changes (it will be a separate pull request)." * 'for-3.9' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tj/cgroup: cgroup: fail if monitored file and event_control are in different cgroup cgroup: fix cgroup_rmdir() vs close(eventfd) race cpuset: fix cpuset_print_task_mems_allowed() vs rename() race cgroup: fix exit() vs rmdir() race cgroup: remove bogus comments in cgroup_diput() cgroup: remove synchronize_rcu() from cgroup_diput() cgroup: remove duplicate RCU free on struct cgroup sched: remove redundant NULL cgroup check in task_group_path() sched: split out css_online/css_offline from tg creation/destruction cgroup: initialize cgrp->dentry before css_alloc() cgroup: remove a NULL check in cgroup_exit() cgroup: fix bogus kernel warnings when cgroup_create() failed cgroup: remove synchronize_rcu() from rebind_subsystems() cgroup: remove synchronize_rcu() from cgroup_attach_{task|proc}() cgroup: use new hashtable implementation cgroups: fix cgroup_event_listener error handling cgroups: move cgroup_event_listener.c to tools/cgroup cgroup: implement cgroup_rightmost_descendant() cgroup: remove unused dummy cgroup_fork_callbacks()
2013-01-30tools: Correct typo in tools MakefileBorislav Petkov-1/+1
It should be make -C tools/ <tool>_install Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1359456492-22156-1-git-send-email-bp@alien8.de Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2013-01-07cgroups: move cgroup_event_listener.c to tools/cgroupGreg Thelen-9/+10
Move the cgroup_event_listener.c tool from Documentation into the new tools/cgroup directory. This change involves wiring cgroup_event_listener.c into the tools/ make system so that is can be built with: $ make tools/cgroup Signed-off-by: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com> Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
2012-11-19tools: Define a Makefile function to do subdir processingDavid Howells-12/+12
Define a Makefile function that can be called with $(call ...) to wrap the subdir make invocations in tools/Makefile. This will allow us in the next patch to insert bits in there to honour O= flags when called from the top-level Makefile. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@amd64.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1378.1352379110@warthog.procyon.org.uk Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2012-04-11tools: Connect to the kernel build systemBorislav Petkov-0/+10
Now you can do $ make tools/<toolname> from the toplevel kernel directory and have the respective tool built. If you want to build and install it, do $ make tools/<toolname>_install $ make tools/<toolname>_clean should clean the respective tool directories. If you want to clean all in tools, simply do $ make tools/clean Also, if you want to get what the possible targets are, simply calling $ make tools/ should give you the short help. $ make tools/install installs all tools, of course. Doh. Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <borislav.petkov@amd.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1334162178-17152-6-git-send-email-bp@amd64.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2012-04-11tools: Add a help targetBorislav Petkov-0/+20
... and make it the default one so that calling 'make' without arguments in the tools/ directory gives you the possible targets to build along with a short description of what they are. Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <borislav.petkov@amd.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1334162178-17152-5-git-send-email-bp@amd64.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>
2012-04-11tools: Add a toplevel MakefileBorislav Petkov-0/+47
Add a Makefile with all the targets under tools/. Signed-off-by: Borislav Petkov <borislav.petkov@amd.com> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Cc: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Cc: Sam Ravnborg <sam@ravnborg.org> Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1334162178-17152-4-git-send-email-bp@amd64.org Signed-off-by: Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@redhat.com>